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大唐荣耀第14集在线观看

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大唐荣耀第14集在线观看

Unit 1

Text A How to Be a Successful Language Learner?

搭配:

1. disagree with 不同意 /动词词组

2. guarantee sth. for sb. 保证某人某事 /动词词组

e.g. This will not guarantee success for every adult language learner. 这样不能确保 每一位学习语言的成年人都成功。

3. be different from 与什么不同 /形容词词组

4. succeed in sth./ doing sth. 成功做某事 /动词词组

5. offer advice to sb. 给某人建议 /动词词组

6. play with sth. 轻松学习某事物 /动词词组

7. in many ways 再很多方面 /介词词组

8. depend on sb./sth. for sth. 依靠某人或某事而获得某事 /动词词组

9. discover one''s own way to do sth. 发现并用自己的方法做某事 /动词词组 10. instead of sth./ doing sth. 想反 /而没有做某事 /介词词组

11. wait for sb. to do sth. 等待某人做某事 /动词词组

12. look for sth./sb. 寻找某人或某物 /动词词组

13. make a mistake 犯错误 /动词词组

14. be afraid to do sth.害怕做某事 /形容词词组

15. be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事 /形容词词组

16. do sth. with a purpose 有目的地做某事 /故意做某事 /动词词组

17. be interested in sth./sb. 对某人或某物很感兴趣 /形容词词组

18. communicate with sb. 与某人交流 /动词词组

19. learn from sb. 想某人学习

20. might do well to do sth. 最好做某事

句型:

1. S.+V.+it+adj.+to do sth. 形式宾语句型 n.

e.g. Some people find it difficult to succeed in language learning.

Some people find it difficult to succeed in other fields.

They find it easy to practice using the language regularly.

2. It is +adj.+for sb.+to do sth. 形式主语句型

e.g. It is more important for them to learn to think in the language than to know the meaning of every word.

It is necessary for them to learn the language in order to communicate with these people and to learn for them.

语言点:

1. success(n. ) -successful (adj. ) -succeed (v. ) 成功

2. hundreds of people与 eight hundred people:请注意有数词存在后, 表量名词的 变化。

3. advice/information 为不可数名次。不能有复数形式。

4. practice doing sth. 练习做某事

5. less than +adj. 不怎么 +形容词的含义 如:less than happy 不怎么开心

阅读技巧:

1. conversely

2. on the other hand

这两个词出现时,下文所讲内容将与上文所提内容截然相反。

Text B Language

搭配:

1. with the help of 在什么的帮助下

2. at a table 坐在桌旁(准备就餐)

3. in this way 这样

4. mean to do sth. 本意是想要做某事

5. not at all +adj. 一点也不 +相容词的含义

e.g. not at all thirsty 一点也不渴

6. as you see 可见

7. consist of 包括,组成

8. put sth. into sth. 把什么融入什么

句型:

1. not only …but also… 不但 … 而且 …

e.g. We can do it not only with the help of words, but also in many other ways. 我们不但可以在语言的帮助下, 还可以用其它的方式来告诉别人我们在想什么。 2. neither… nor… 既不 … 也不

e.g. People who can neither hear nor speak talk to each other with the help of their

fingers.

既不能听也局能说的人也可以用他们的手指来彼此交流。

3. each time 每一次(连词:用来连接两个句子)

e.g. He shook his head each time the waiter brought him something to drink.

每一次服务员给他拿来喝的东西他都摇头。

语言点:

1. mean-meant; shake-shook ; meet-met

2. 半系动词后加名词:look sad; keep silent

3. 说语言要用 speak

阅读技巧:

for instance 或 for example 后的文字是用来支持阐述上面所述文字的。

Unit 2

Text A Taxes , Taxes , and More Taxes

搭配:

1. be sure of 确保、一定、毫无疑问 /形容词词组

2. have a corner in/on sth. 垄断 /动词词组

e.g. have a corner on the textile market 垄断纺织市场

have a corner in textile 对纺织品进行垄断

3. lead the world with sth. 以什么来引领世界 /动词词组

4. vary in sth. 有差异 e.g. vary in ideas 想法有差异

vary sth. 改变 e.g. vary your attitude 改变你的观点

vary with 随什么而改变

vary from sth./sb. to sth./sb. 什么什么各不相同

e.g. vary from person to person 人人不同 vary from place to place每个地方各 不相同

5. sth. is due. 到了该什么的时间了。 e.g. The federal taxes are due. 到了该收税款 的时间了

6. be similar to 与什么一样 /形容词词组

7. buy sth. for +多少钱 /动词词组 e.g. buy a packet of cigarettes for twenty-five cents.

8. in addition to sth./doing sth.除了(表示加的概念) /名词词组

e.g. In addition to teaching, she is in charge of managing the whole school.

In addition to his flat in Chaoyang, he has anther flat in Haidian.

9. in two forms 以两种形式

10. charge on sth. 收取什么的费用 e.g. charge on cars in a city.收取城内汽车 的费用。

be charged with被控诉有某种罪行; be charged by sb. 由某人收取费用

charge for 收取多少价钱 e.g. How much do you charge for this car?这辆车你要 多少钱?

in charge 负责 e.g. Who is in charge here? 谁在这负责?

11. raise funds for 为什么筹集资金 eg raise funds for education 为教育筹集资 金。

12. complain about sth./sb. 抱怨某人或某事/动词词组; complain of sth. 述说病 情

13. spend sth. in doing sth.; spend sth. on sth. 花费时间; 金钱; 精力做某事/动 词词组

14. have different views on sth./sb. 对某人或某事有不同观点/动词词组

15. tend to do sth. 倾向做某事;

16. agree on sth. 同意做某事; agree with sb. 与某人意见一致

语言点:

1. salary工资(n. ) -salaried 工资的(adj. )

2. a percentage of 表示抽象概念;数字 +percent of 表示多少的百分比

3. work表示工作没有复数; works 表示工厂或著作

Text B Advertising

语言点:

1. part of某整体中的一部分(可大,可小;但不可分割); a part of 某整体中很 小的一部分

2. on radio/ television 通过收音机 /电视

3. sth. is available. 可以提供某物

搭配:

1. attract sb.'s attention 吸引某人注意 /动词词组

2. for the most part 很大程度上,在大多数情况下,一般地说 /作插入语

3. persuade sb. To do sth. 劝说某人做某事 /动词词组

4. put out ads. 做广告 /动词词组

5. A is characteristic of B A 是 B 的特征

e.g. Quick speech is characteristic of me. 讲话快是我的特征。

6. catch the eye 吸引某人 /动词词组

7. no more than 仅仅 e.g. What he said is no more than rubbish. 他说的话仅仅是 垃圾。

8. identify with 把什么和什么联系起来 e.g. It is hard for me to identify his behavior with his thought.我很难把他的想法和他的行为联系起来。

9. be carried over into继续下去;遗留下去 e.g. The same techniques have been carried over into television ads. 同样的方法也运用在电视广告中。

10. add sth. to sth.把什么加在什么上/动词词组; mix sth. and sth. 把什么和什么 融合在一起

11. put up with忍耐/动词词组

e.g. How can you put up with a person of his sort.你怎么能容忍他那样的人? 12. be responsible for sb./sth 为某人或某事负责/动词词组

13. decide on sth.; decide to do sth.决定(做)某事/动词词组

14. make an estimate of the costs估计价值/动词词组

15. be involved in sth./doing 参与某事 /动词词组

Unit 4

Text A Improving Your Memory

搭配:

1. focus on sb./sth.; be focused on 集中;聚焦;关注 /动词词组

a focus of attention 注意力 /名词词组

2. at all levels 在各个层次 /介词词组

3. make any sense to sb. 对某人来说有意义;某人不明白某事 /动词词组

4. make a difference in sth./doing sth. 在什么方面有区别 /动词词组

5. ability to do sth. 有能力做某事;注:永远没有 ability of doing sth./名词词组

6. keep in random order 顺序混乱 /动词词组

7. group sth. into sth. 把什么按什么分组 /动词词组

8. as follows 如下所示 /副词词组

9. needless to say 毋庸多言 /作插入语

10. refer to sth./doing sth. 提到、 指的是、 参考; refer back to 重提某事; refer sb. to sb. else 让某人去找另外一人 e.g. If he needs any further information, refer him to me. 如果他还需要了解什么情况,让他来找我。注:prefer 更喜欢。

11. relate sth. to/with sth. 把什么和什么联系在一起:可指物或事件。

associate sb./sth. with sb./sth. 把某人或某事联系在一起:特指人。

12. compare A with B 把 A 和 B 作比较 /动词词组

语言点:

1. a number of 表示许多,后面接可数名词复数; an amount of 后接不可数名词

2. 形式主语句:it is/was +adj.+to do sth.; to do sth.为真正的主语, it 为形式主语 e.g. It is useful to know how these principles work.

3. 使役动词:make sb. do sth./ help sb. do sth.

4. Categorizing is another means of organization. 注:动词的 -ing 做主语; means 单复数同型

5. In memorizing a number, you might try to associate it with familiar numbers or events. (注意介词后的动词形式)

6. Research has shown striking improvements in many types of memory tasks when people are asked to visualize the items to be remembered.(注意动词不定式后使用被动 态是由于 item 和 remember 之间是被动关系)研究表明当人们被要求用形象的办法 来记住东西的时候,各种记忆力都会得到明显的提高。

Text B Short-term Memory

搭配:

1. in contrast 与此相反; 同义词 conversely , on the other hand (阅读技巧:下文和上文的完全转折)

2. over and over 一次又一次地 /副词词组

3. look up sth. in sth. 在什么中查找,查阅什么 /动词词组

4. repeat sth. to oneself 自言自语 /动词词组

5. study sth. with sth. 用什么来研究什么 /动词词组

6. turn on/turn off the lights 开灯、关灯 /动词词组

7. be released from some place 被从什么地方放出 /动词词组

8. to begin with 首先,最初 /副词词组

语言点:

1. 时态问题:在时间状语、条件状语从句中,主句用将来时态,从句用现在时 表示将来。 E.g. If someone interrupts you, you will probably forget the number.

2. able-unable

3. Following the recording, the subjects took a 15-question test to see which words they remembered. 注:Following=after; a 15-question test=a 15 questions'test; a five-year old boy=a five years’ old boy

4. relate(联系) -related (相连的) -unrelated (不相关联的)

Unit 3

Text A The Atlantic Ocean

搭配:

1. separate A from B 把某人;或某物分开 /动词词组

2. keep sb. from doing sth. 使某人无法做某事;无法做某事 /动词词组

3. on the average 平均; below/above the average 在什么的水平以下;上 /介词词 组

4. furnish sth for sb. 给某人提供某物 /动词词组

5. pile up 折起,累计,若干车辆碰在一起 /动词词组

语言点:

1. 本课带宾补的动词:make

e.g. make early sailors unwilling to do sth.(宾补)

Two things make the Atlantic Ocean rather unusual.

2. 形容词的特殊用法:

It is more than 4000 miles wide.(形容词后置)

On the average the water is a little more than two miles deep.

3. 形容词前有 as , so , no , too , how 等词时,不定冠词应置于形容词之后,如: e.g. We couldn't do it in so short a time.

She is too kind a girl to refuse.

Aids is so terrible a disease.

He is too old a man to do that kind of job.

4. suppose +句子 =表示一种假设

5. it takes/took +(某人) +多少时间 +to do sth. 花了某人多少时间做某事。 It would take the ocean about 4000 years to dry up.

6. much可以用来修饰形容词的比较级。 E.g. much better; much deeper.

7. raise为及物动词,后可以加宾语, e.g. raise the pay.(增加工资); rise 为不及 物动词(其后不能加宾语), e.g. the sun rises in the east. 注:宾语为名词,代词,动 词的 -ing.

8. 在一般名词所构成的专有名此前需要加定冠词。

E.g. the Azores 亚苏尔群岛; the Atlantic Ocean 大西洋

9. for用来连接两个句子的时候为并列连词,表原因。

E.g. Here the water is quiet, for there is little wind.

10. In the days of sailing vessels the crew were afraid they would be becalmed here.主谓一致

11. so … that/ such …that 句型:太 …+句子

e.g. We now have such fast ways of traveling that this big ocean seems to have grown smaller. 我们现在有太多快速的旅行方式,因此大西洋看起来好像小了很多。 So 主要用来修饰形容词或副词; such 则最终需要修饰名词。

12. across为介词或副词,使用它时,句子中应该已有动词。

E.g Icebergs float down from the Far North across the paths of ships.

Cross 为动词,作谓语或跟在动词不定式 to 后面。 E.g. Columbus sailed for more than two months to cross it.

Text B The Moon

搭配:

1. be kept tied to sth./sb. 离不开某人 /紧紧的依附于某物

2. face towards sth./sb. 面向; face away from sth./sb. 背向

3. keep sth./sb. in mind 牢记于心

4. be lighted up by sth. 被什么照亮

5. speak of 提及;说到

6. reflect sth. on to sth. 把什么反射到什么上去

语言点:

1. 半系动词(半系动词后加形容词):remain/stand/look/appear

2. 世界独一无二的事物前应该加定冠词。如:the earth, the world, the moon

3. except, except for, besides 怎么区别?

besides

“ 除 … 外,还有 …” ,指更进一步的拥有,包括所 “ 除 ” 事物在内。

Have you got any clothes besides these? 除了这些衣服你还有别的吗?

except

不包括所引事物。 常与 no , none , nothing 等否定词或 all , everyone , everything 等连用,但不可用于句首。

They all went to the Summer Palace except one. 除一人之外他们都去了颐和园。 except for

常指除去所引情况让人稍感遗憾之外,整体情况尚属理想,被除去的事物与正 在谈及的事物之间不具有共同属性或性质。

The roads were clear except for a few cars. 除几辆小汽车外,路面很空旷。 4. enough作为副词时修饰形容词放在形容词后, adj.+enough for sb. to do sth. e.g. it is light enough for us to be able to see its outline.

5. 初次接触到带介词定语从句,如:

The light by which we see the old moon does not come from the sun, but from the earth.

“The old moon in the new moon's arms” is nothing but that part of the moon's surface on which it is night.

There are several ways in which we can make material more meaningful.

Which 代指前面被修饰的名词, 翻译时, 就把 which 前的介词放在被修饰的名词 前即可。

如:The light by which=by light 通过月光

surface on which=on surface 在月亮上的表面

several ways in which=in several ways 在很多方面

6. 感观动词 see 的特殊用法:see sb. do sth.或 see sb. doing sth. 前者表示看到了 全过程,或者表示正在看到的动作。

7. nothing but表示仅仅 E.g. The money brought nothing but sadness.这笔钱仅仅带 来了痛苦。 Unit 5

Text A Fallacies about Food

搭配:

1. be eager to do sth./be eager for sth. 渴望做某事 /动词词组

2. be supposed to do sth. 应该,被认为去做某事; it is supposed that 人们认为

3. be supplied to sb. 把某物提供给某人

4. substitute A for B 用 A 来替换 B/动词或名词词组

5. wash sth. down sth. 用什么来涑下什么 /动词词组

6. have to do with/have nothing to with/have much to do with与某人或某事有关 /无 关 /很有关

语言点:

1. 阅读技巧:阅读时间如果很紧张的话,我们可以把两个逗号间的内容省略不 看。

2. 使役动词:Eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer. Make后用动词 原形;同样 make 也是可以带宾语补足语的动词, e.g. eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.

Think 也可以带宾语补足语。 E.g. People thought tomatoes poisonous.

3. may have done sth. 表示对过去的推测 e.g. He may have cried yesterday. 他昨 天有可能哭了。 She may have found a job last week. 她有可能上个星期已经找到工作 了。

4. civil(国民的) -civilized (文明的) -civilization (文明)

5. it is/was thought that 有人认为

6. eat-ate(过去时)

7. Later another wrong idea about tomatoes grew up. Tomato的复数形式需要在词 末加 es.

Idea grows up. 出现某种观点。

8. 冠词问题:World War II; the Second World War

9. drink-drunk(过去分词)

Text B Do Animals Think?

搭配:

1. a great deal 非常 /副词词组,放在动词后; a great deaf of +n.(不可数)大量

2. be true with(of ) sb./sth. 什么什么也是真的;如此 /动词词组

3. as well 也 /副词词组,放在句末

4. be engaged in sth./doing 忙于做某事 /动词词组

5. search for 寻找 /动词词组

6. in some respects 在一些方面 /介词词组

7. take care of 照顾 /动词词组

8. make improvement in 在哪方面取得进步

9. by instinct 本能地 /副词词组

10. think out 周密考虑 /动词词组

11. speak of 说到 /动词词组

12. let sb./sth. out 释放 /动词词组

13. a variety of 多种多样的 /表量词组

14. have no knowledge of sth/sb./doing sth. 对什么人 /什么事 /做某事一无所知 /动 词词组

语言点:

1. live(v. ) -lively (adj. 活泼的)

2. 倒装句:hardworking as they are. 此处的 as 表示 although 或 though , 尽管的意 思,但用 as 时,需要把形容词或副词放在句首 +as+顺状语序。该句话翻译成:尽管 他们很努力工作。 E.g. Although I love you much, I still can't help you. 可以转换成: Much as I love you, I still can't help you. E.g. Though this movie is very moving, I still can't afford time to see it. 可以转换成:Moving as this movie is, I still can't afford time to see it.

3. sober冷静的 /严肃的;其比较级是 more sober

4. could have done/could have been done 本可以做或被做的事而没有做。

could not have done/could not have been done 本不可能做或被做的事而作了

5. 主语 +is not long in doing sth 做某事不会花很长时间

6. 难句:Many of things that animals know how to do they seem to know either without learning, or in some way which we cannot understand. 词句话为倒装语序, 顺 装应为:They seem to know many of things that animals know how to do, either without learning , or in some way which we cannot understand. 其中:either…or… 表示 “ 要么 … 要么 …” 把此句可以翻译成:它们似乎知道很多动物做事的方法,这些方法要么不 是靠学到的,要么就是以我们所不理解的方式知道的。

7. 重要句型:We never see frogs engaged in sport.

The owl always looks as if he were considering some important question.(as if的句 型里出现了虚拟语气,由于是对现在的虚拟,所以采用了系动词 were 的形式) Now , if he had had his wits about him, he would have known that there was no use in building a dam where there was no water.(此句为对过去虚拟的句型, 原则为 if 条件 句型用助动词 had 加上动词的过去分词形式, 主句用情态动词 would 等加上 have done 的形式; 本句第二个 had 是 have one's wits 这个词组的动词过去分词形式; 另外, 此 处的 there was no use in 后面只能接动词的 ing 形式)

Animals think much while building their houses.(此句话为省略句型之所以用 building ,一方面是因为在时间状语从句里省略了语主句相同的主语 animals 和系动 词 are ,另一方面是因为 animals 可以发出 build 的动作,所以用主动的 doing 形式) They are said to do sth. 据说 ……

It is by this instinct that birds build their nests and beavers their dams and huts.(本句 话为强调句型;划线部分为强调句型的基本配置,划线部分之间是被强调成分) The reason why… 做某事的原因

It is plain that +从句 很明显

Their minds are so much unlike outs that they do not know the difference between right and wrong. (此句为 so …that… 句型; unlike 为 adj. 表示不像)

Unit 6

Text A Diamonds

搭配:

1. change sth. into sth. 把什么变成什么 /动词词组

2. exist in 存在于 /动词词组

3. mass of 团、堆、块 /表量词组

4. become popular with/among sb. 受谁的喜欢,欢迎 /动词词组

5. come at a good time 适逢其时 /动词词组

6. be running out 渐渐用尽 /动词词组

7. handfuls of 成捧的(东西) /表量词组

8. sort out 淘选出 /动词词组

语言点:

1. be made from sth.指 sth. 已看不出原材料 (如酒是高粱做的) ; be make of sth. 指 sth. 可以看出原材料(如桌子是木头做的)

2. it is thought that +从句 人们认为

3. good enough for doing sth. 好到可以做某事

4. experience(n./v.) -experienced (adj. 有经验的)

5. be classed as 被作为什么而分类 /动词词组

6. the former…the latter前者,后者

Text B The Difference between Plants and Animals

搭配:

1. tell A from B 辨别 /动词词组

2. be satisfied with sb/sth./doing sth. 对什么 /某人表示满意 /动词词组

3. take place 发生(无法阻止的事情) /动词词组

4. lie in 存在于 /动词词组

5. live on sth. 靠什么而生存 /动词词组

6. work wonders 创造奇迹 /动词词组

7. take in the riches 吸取精华 /动词词组

8. suck up 吸收,吸取 /动词词组

9. be different from 与什么不同

语言点:

1. There are many plants which have neither roots nor leaves nor flowers, while there are some animals which seem to have all three. (neither…nor 句型表示两者都不) e.g. People who can neither hear nor speak talk to each other with the help of their fingers. (并列动词); My doctor told me I should neither smoke nor drink.(并列动词); She neither knows nor cares what has happened to her ex-husband. (并列动词)

2. 冠词问题:The blue haze, like smoke, is the dividing line between the heavens and the earth.(世界上独一无二的东西)。

3. You may look at a group of cows standing under the trees or catch a bee at his early drink in a morning-glory bell. Look at 为感官动词,其后可以加动词原形,也可 以用动词的 ing 形式。用动词原形表明看到了全过程,用动词的 ing 形式表示看到动 作正在进行中。

4. magnify(v. 放大) -magnifying glass(adj. 放大镜)

5. puzzle(v. 使迷惑) -puzzling (adj. 某事 /某人 /给某人造成了迷惑的情感) -puzzled (adj. 自身感到很迷惑)

6. stomach的名词复数形式为 stomachs

7. They see many things which most people would fail to see. fail to do sth. 不能做 某事

8. 主谓一致问题:分数或百分比后面的谓语动词采用何种形式要看其后紧跟的 名词,如所跟名词为可数名词复数,则谓语动词采用复数形式;所跟名词为不可数 名词, 则谓语动词采用单数形式。 是就近原则的一种。 E.g. We now know that about one fourth of all the kinds of seaweed are animals.

9. be to do sth. 是将来时的一种,表示命令或计划做某事

10. Animals can live only on what plants have already turned from inorganic to vegetable matter.(以后在名词型从句处做具体讲解)

11. No bird nor fish nor other animal could ever have lived on this earth, if the plants had not come first and fitted it for the dwelling place of a higher order of beings. (对过去进行虚拟:主句用情态动词 +have done, 从句用过去完成时 had done 的形 式)

12. It takes up such parts of the soil as are dissolved in the water. (as 的句型是特殊 的定语从句句型,由于前面出现了 such 才会采用 as 来做定语从句的关系代词; take up 的意思是吸收;本句话的意思为:植物还会吸收能够在水中溶解的部分土壤。) Unit 7

Text A Families

搭配:

1. descend from 从什么传下来的 /动词词组

2. think of…as… 把什么看作是 /动词词组

3. far away from 远离 /副词词组

4. feeling of belongings 归属感 /名词词组

5. with the change 随着变化 /介词词组

6. care for 照顾 /动词词组

7. split up 裂变,离婚 /动词词组

8. talk of 谈及 /动词词组

语言点:

1. Having a family simply means having children. (前一个动词的 ing 形式放在 means 这个谓语动词前是动名词作主语; 后一个动词 ing 形式放在 means 这个谓语动 词后是动名词作宾语)

2. No matter+(if , whether , how , what , when , who , where , which 等 连词) +句子。 表示无论 ……

3. Every family has a sense of what a family is.

4. industry(n. 工业) -industrial (adj. 工业的) -industrialize (v. 使工业化)

5. increase(增长)这个动词经常用在进行时态中。

6. Most single parents find it very difficult to take care of a family alone, so they soon marry again and form remarried families.(形式宾语句型:主语 +谓语 +it+n./adj.+to do +其他)

Text B The Changing American Family

搭配:

1. be important to sb. 对某人很重要 /动词词组

2. provide for 为谁提供什么 /动词词组

3. be expected to do sth. 应该做某事 /动词词组

4. take care of 照顾 /动词词组

5. work for pay 为了赚钱而工作 /动词词组

6. be (not ) considered to be/do sth. 被认为是什么,做什么 /动词词组

7. make decisions about sth./doing sth. 做什么决定 /动词词组

8. working wife 工作的妻子 /名词词组

9. help sb. with sth. 帮助某人什么 /动词词组

10. in contrast 与此相反 /副词词组

11. get ready for 为什么做好准备 /动词词组

12. be busy with sth./be busy (in ) doing sth. 忙于做某事 /动词词组

13. in conclusion 最后 /副词词组

14. bring changes to sb/sth…… 给某人带来了变化 /动词词组

语言点:

1. similar(adj. 相似的) -similarly (adv. 相似地) —— similarity (n. 相似)

2. may have done sth. 对过去发生的事情进行推断 e.g. She may have been married. 她有可能已经结婚了。

Unit 8

Text A Telecommunication via Satellite

搭配:

1. At the begging of sth. 在什么的开始 /介词词组

2. Change into 转变成 /动词词组

3. From…to… 从 … 到 /介词词组

4. Pick up 接收 /动词词组

5. Be capable of sth./doing sth. 某人能够胜任某职位;某事有可能做某事 /形容词 词组

6. In theory 理论上地 /副词词组

7. Have access to sth./doing sth. 接触,使用,可接近 /动词词组

e.g. You can easily have access to him. 他很好接近。

We have free access to her materials. 我们可以免费使用她的材料。

8. Provide help to people 为人们提供帮助 /动词词组

9. Be able to do sth. 能够做某事 /形容词词组

10. Follow sb.s instructions on sth. 在什么事上听从某人的意见 /动词词组

11. Care for 照顾 /动词词组

12. As well as 也 /起到连接作用的词组

13. Be a risk to sth./doing sth. 做某事很冒险 /名词词组

14. Pay for sth. 为某样物品付款 /动词词组

15. Isolate sth./sb. from sth./sb. 市某人 /某物与某人或某物隔绝 /动词词组

16. Do one's banking 存钱或取钱(银行业务) /动词词组

17. Prevent sth. from sth./doing sth. 阻止某事发生 /动词词组

18. Lead sb. to success 引导某人成功; lead to sth./doing sth. 导致 /动词词组 语言点:

1. 时态题:By the middle of the century, both radio and television had become established means of transmitting sounds and/or pictures. By the time of +现在时间状语, 用一般现在时; by the time of +将来时间状语, 用将来完成时; by the time of +过去时 间状语,用过去完成时。

2. Printed materials 印刷材料; isolated areas 荒芜的地区

3. Entertain(v. 娱乐) -entertained (adj. 娱乐的) -entertainment (n. 娱乐)

4. In 1975, many people in India saw television for the first time as they watched programs about agriculture and health. (因为)

5. Common的最高级 the most common

6. 难句:Telecommunication can make information from around the world available to use quickly and easily, but…

make sth. available sth. 是宾语; available 这个 adj. 是 sth. 的宾语补足语

电信可以使全世界的信息使用起来又便捷又容易。

7. Contact为不可数名词,可以用 much 来修饰,表示许多联系。

8. 翻译:It is important to realize that the same technology that helps us may also harm us.

意识到一项科技既能帮助我们又会伤害到我们,这很重要。

Text B What people Don't Know about Air

搭配:

1. Be important to sb. 对某人来说很重要 /形容词词组

2. In order to do sth. 为了做某事 /表示目的的动词不定式短语

3. As we know it 正如我们所知道的那样 /状语

4. Be forced to do sth. 被迫做某事,不得不做某事 /动词词组

5. Seek shelter from 远离,躲避 /动词词组

6. Protect sb. from sth./doing sth. 保护某人不受 /动词词组

7. Rest upon 依赖,落在什么上 /动词词组

8. Gaze at sth./sb. 盯着某人或某物看 /动词词组

9. In wonder 惊讶地 /副词词组

10. In the meantime 与此同时 /副词短语

11. Pay attention to sth./doing sth. 注意某事 /动词词组

12. Add sth. to sth. 添加 /动词词组

语言点:

1. 虚拟语气:

a. Without air, we could not exist.

b. Without air, there would be no fire.

c. Without air, there would be no wind or clouds.

结论:介词 without+名词或代词,主语 +could/would +动词原型。表示对现在进 行虚拟。

d. If we did not have air, there would be no sound.

e. If we did not have atmospheric pressure, we could not have automobile tires.

f. The tires would burst if they did not have the pressure of the atmosphere against their surfaces.

结论:从句用动词的过去式, 主句用 could/would+动词原型。 表示对现在进行虚 拟。

2. 时态题:Sound travels through air. 用现在时的原因表客观事实。

3. 翻译:Where there is no air, there is no sound. 没有空气的地方就没有声音。

4. Deadly(adj. )致命的, e.g. deadly rays 致命的射线

5. But our bodies are built in such a way that this weight does not crush us.

6. 翻译:Electrical energy is collected in the atmosphere as water is collected and stored in a dam. 电能被储藏在大气层里就宛若水被汇集并储藏在大坝里一样。 7. But a thorough study of electricity in the atmosphere was not possible until the development of radio and radar. Not…until… 直到什么时候 … 才

8. Large amounts of +不可数名词,表示大量的

9. Unending adj. 无穷无尽的

Unit 9

Text A Learned Words and Popular Words

搭配:

1. Make up 构成 /动词词组

2. Become familiar with sth./become familiar to sb. 对某人 /某事很熟悉 /形容词词 组

3. Stock in trade 库存或常用手段 /名词词组

4. Belong to 属于 /动词词组

5. At large 逍遥地;一般地 /副词词组

The criminals at large 逍遥法外的罪犯

Englishmen at large like to have the afternoon tea. 英国人一般喜欢喝下午茶。

6. Be known to sb. 为某人所知/动词词组

7. Acquaintance with sb./sth. 了解某人或某事 /名词词组

8. In…style 以某种方式 /介词词组

9. Describe sb./sth. as 把什么看作是,把某人描绘成 /动词词组

10. In the first case 首先 /副词词组

11. Apply sth. to sth. 把什么应用到什么上去; apply for sth. 申请什么 /动词词组 12. Stock of words 词汇量 /名词词组

13. As to 至于,有关于,就什么而言 /介词词组

14. Be due to 因为 /形容词词组

语言点:

1. Cultivated language 文雅的语言; limited class 有限的阶级; learned words 书 卷词汇

2. A large number of +可数名词复数,表示大量的

3. Relative(adj. 相关的) =relatively(adv. 相关地)

4. Educate(v. 教育) -educated (adj. 有修养的) ; elevate (v. 升高) -elevated (adj. 高贵的、尊严的)

5. High(adj. adv.高的 -指某物的具体高度如:楼的高度) -highly (adv. 高度的评 价,属于抽象概念)

6. Be(适当形式) +of+importance/value/use/help=important/valuable/usable/helpful

7. The difference between popular and learned words may be easily seen in a few examples.

8. Must have done sth. 表示对过去的事情进行推测。 E.g. We must have passed several years of our lives before learning the word vivacious.在我们学到 vivacious 这个 单词时,我们有可能已经度过了生命中的好几年了。

9. Popular(adj. 流行的) -popularity (n. 流行); sound-(adj. )有道理的

10. Opinions come up 产生观点

11. Its presence in the English vocabulary is due to books and the cultivation of literature rather than to the actual needs of ordinary conversation.书卷词汇在英语词汇中 的存在是因为书籍和文学修养的需要,而不是因为普通对话的需要。

Text B How Should You Build Up Your Vocabulary?

搭配:

1. Come across 偶然遇到,碰到 /动词词组

2. Look up 查找 /动词词组

3. At top speed 快速的 /介词词组

4. Depend on sb./sth. 依赖某人或某事

5. After all 毕竟 /副词词组

6. Begin with 开始于什么 /动词词组

7. Make sense 有意义 /动词词组

8. Have a preference for sth./doing sth. 偏爱,优先选择 /动词词组

9. Look for 寻找 /动词词组

10. Go through 经历 /动词词组

11. Come up with 想到(如:某个想法 /主意) /动词词组

12. Spark a interest in sth. 激发做某事的某种兴趣 /动词词组

13. Be involved in sth. 参与某事 /动词词组

14. Lead to 导致 /动词词组

15. Develop a habit 养成习惯 /动词词组

16. Provide sb. with sth. 为某人提供某事 /动词词组

17. Sharpen sb.'s awareness of sth. 提高某人的什么意识 /动词词组

语言点:

1. A.When students in a college class were asked what should be done when they came across a new word in their reading, 84 percent said, “Look it up inthe dictionary.” B. Suppose someone asks you what the word “fast” means.

2. Make one's efforts most productive 宾补; 使你的努力变得有成效。

3. Reading travel books apparently comes “before” other kinds of reading. 动名词做 主语

4. 语法:Only when you go through the mental exercises to come up with a tentative definition should you open the dictionary to see if you're right. 倒装句型

Only+状语 +助动词 +主语 +动词的适当形式 +其他

e. g. Only in that way could we solve the problem.

Only when he left did I feel lonely.

5. Heighten(v. 提高、 升高) heightened (adj. 提高的) ; increase (v. 提高) increased (adj. 提高的)

Unit 10

Text A Scientific Attitudes

搭配:

1. Seek answers to questions 寻找什么问题的答案(seek 的过去式:sought ) /动 词词组

2. lay aside 搁置(lay 的过去式:Laid ) /动词词组

3. Be curious about 对什么好奇 /形容词词组

4. Take apart (e.g. a watch) 拆散 /动词词组

5. Combine sth. with sth. 把什么和什么结合在一起 /动词词组

6. Carry out the experiment 完成试验 /动词词组

7. Belief in sth./sb. 相信某人或某事 /名词词组

8. (there is) an explanation for sth. 解释某事 /名词性词组

9. There is a good reason why +句子 这就是为什么的原因

10. Not at all 一点也不 /副此词组

11. Regardless of 不管;无论 /形容词词组

12. Succeed in sth./doing sth. 成工作某事 /动词词组

13. The solutions to problems 问题的解决办法 /名词的解决方法

14. In advance 提前 /副词词组

15. Adapt sth. to sth. 使什么适应什么 /动词词组

16. Make up one's mind 下定决心 /动词词组

17. Once and for all 一劳永逸地 /副词词组

18. Change in thinking 思想的转变 /名词词组

19. Make sth. necessary 事某事很必要 /动词词组

20. In the light of sth. 根据,参照,考虑到 /介词词组

21. Respect for sth. 对什么的尊敬 /名词词组,动词词组

22. The difficulty comes up. 问题产生了

23. Base on sth. 根据什么 /动词词组

24. It may take time for sth./sb. to do sth. 做某事花某人多长时间

25. Conditions for sth. 什么的条件 /名词词组

语言点:

1. Belief的复数形式为 beliefs

2. Well-known/著名的

3. Curious(adj. 好奇的) —— curiosity (n. 好奇); imagine (v. 想象) -imagination (n. 想象力)

4. Scientifically minded people 有科学头脑的人

5. In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered. 在对于现象还无法解释的时候,科学的观点是 有理由相信迟早这种解释是可以被发现的。

6. This means the ability to(做什么的能力) face the facts as they are(实事求是) regardless of what one has previously thought.

7. Agree(v. 同意) -disagreeable (adj. 令人讨厌的)

8. The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant. I didn't know whether to laugh or to cry when I heard the news.是 … 还是 …

Whether he succeeds or fails, he has to do his best.

He doesn't know whether she is in Britain or she has gone to France.

9. Thomas Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in producing the first electric lamp.

10. Accept(v. 接受) -acceptable (adj. 可接受的)

11. Scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time.

12. New ideas are frequently very slow to be accepted.

13. Continued progress 继续的发展

14. 时态题:There is an experiment on the sprouting of seeds which has been running for more than 50 years.

Text B Solving Problems Scientifically

搭配:

1. Arouse one's curiosity 引起某人的注意 /动词词组

2. Result from=arise from 由于 /动词词组; result in 导致 /动词词组

3. Give clue for doing sth. 为做某事提供线索 /动词词组

4. Build a firm foundation for doing sth. 为做某事打下坚实的基础 /动词词组

5. Make an inference 做推论 /动词词组

6. Turn out to be 结果是 /动词词组

7. Check with 与什么相符 /动词词组

语言点:

1. Once是连接词,表示一旦。

2. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Be well started toward 是什么的良好开端。

3. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved.

4. Related questions 相关问题; unanswered questions 为回答的问题; controlled conditions 被控制的条件

5. Reliable(adj. 可信赖的) -unreliable (adj. 不可信赖的)

6. Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. = If the observations or predictions should turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis.

Unit 11

Text A The Great American Garage Sale

搭配:

1. Do some spring housecleaning 大扫除 /动词词组

2. Sort through 分类,整理 /动词词组

3. Set out 陈列,展示 /动词词组

4. Hold garage sales 在车库买旧货 /动词词组

5. Be considered by sb. as sth. 被某人认为作为什么 /动词词组

6. Sth. is priced at 某物定价在 /动词词组

7. Sb. is fed up with sth./sb.=be turned off 某人厌倦了某人或某物 /动词词组

8. Search for 寻找 /动词词组

9. Spend 时间 doing sth. 花了多少时间做某事 /动词词组

10. Run across 偶然遇到 /动词词组

11. Be of great value=valuable 很有价值的

12. Separate sth./sb. from sth./sb. 把什么和什么隔开 /动词词组

13. Be bound to do sth. 一定做某事 /动词词组

14. Be faced with 面对 /动词词组

语言点:

1. Sorting through(分词做状语) their possessions, they came up with(发现) some 1500 old, unwanted items-all sorts of things they wanted to get rid of(摆脱)。

2. The Ericksons 定冠词 the+姓氏名称 +s:表示一家人

3. The Ericksons decided to do what a lot of other Americans are doing these

days-have a “garage sale.

4. Needn't have done sth. 做了一件本不需要做的事

5. Eager buyers bought all but 50 of the items in one weekend, leaving (现分作结 果状语) the family 2 richer.

6. The variety of (大量的) things put up(过分作后置定语) for (提供以提供) sale is really wonderful.

7. Rising living costs(生活费用) are considered by almost everyone as a reason both for holding sales and for attending them.

8. Garage sales have become suburban social events, drawing people of all ages.(划 线部分为现在分词作状语, 之所以用 drawing 是因为主语 Garage sales 可以发出 draw 吸引的动作)

9. Neighbors enjoy meeting new people. Enjoy这个动词后只能用 ving 动名词来作 宾语。

10. They spend their weekends going from sale to sale, hoping to run across a real treasure (hoping 为现在分词作状语, 之所以用 ving 是因为 they 能发出 hope 的动词) Text B American Stores

搭配:

1. a wide range of sth. 很大的范围

2. Be urged to do sth. 被催促作某事 /动词词组

3. Sth. is confusing to sb. 什么事情很是令某人迷惑

4. Choose from 从什么中选取 /动词词组

5. Specialize in 专长于 /动词词组

6. Be likely to do sth. 很可能作某事 /形容词词组

7. Refer to 指的是 /动词词组(to 是介词)

8. A great quantity of sth.(可数名词) 大量的

9. Be known for sth. 以什么而著名 /动词词组

10. Majority of sth. 大多数的

语言点:

1. In the United States you will find yourself being urged(现在分词作宾语补足语) to buy all kinds of goods.

2. Not only 放在句首,需要倒装:

Not only is there a wide range of prices for goods in America, there is also a wide range in the quality of goods offered for sale.

原句:There is not only a wide range of prices for goods in America, there is also a wide range in the quality of goods offered for sale.

Not only are you my teacher, but also you are my friend.

原句:You are not only my teacher, but also you are my friend.

3. Americans generally pay the price of a product without question, instead of trying to get a lower price by bargain.(介词后面需要有动词的 ing 形式来作介词的宾语)

4. Lower:可以是 adj. 的比较级;也可以是 v. 表示降低

5. This may all be confusing to the visitor. (系动词后是现在分词作表语;之所以 用 ving 是因为我们要考虑这件事情 “ 令人迷惑 ” )

6. Read the advertisements so that you can compare prices.(so that 是因此的意思, 表结果状语从句)

7. They don't offer the same services to buyers that department stores do.(定语从句 中缺宾语可以用 that )

8. Limit(v. 限制) -limited (adj. 受限的); expensive —— inexpensive

9. Usually run by a small number of salespeople, these shops offer products that range from inexpensive to very expensive, depending on the shop.

10. One of the most interesting sections to visit is the frozen food section.(过分作定 语)

Unit 12

Text A How Dictionaries Are Made

搭配:

1. Get into a discussion with sb. 与某人探讨 /动词词组

2. What for? 为什么

3. Be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事 /形容词词组

4. Quarrel with sb. 与某人争吵 /动词词组

5. Sb./sth. is regarded as 某人 /某事被认为 /动词词组

6. Arrive at sth. 得出结论 /动词词组

7. Apply to 应用于 /动词词组

8. Begin with 开始于 /动词词组

9. Amounts of+不可数名词 大量的

10. That is to say 也就是说

11. Along with sth./sb. 还有某人或某事

12. Divide up 分开 /动词词组

13. According to(介词) 根据

14. Be based on 根据 /动词词组

15. Be influenced by 被什么影响 /动词词组

16. Ought to do sth. 应该作某事 /动词词组

17. To the best of one's ability 尽某人最大的努力(插入语)

18. Be guided by 被什么引导 /动词词组

19. Be bound by sth. 由什么注定

语言点:

1. It is widely believed that +从句 =人们普遍相信

2. Existing dictionary 现存字典

3. When the sorting is completed, there will be for each word anywhere from two or three to several hundred quotations, each on its card.

4. To define(动词不定式表目的) a word, the dictionary editor places before him the stack of cards illustrating(现在分词放在名词后,作后置定语) that word.

5. The editor cannot be influenced by what a given (过分作定语,表示已给出的) word ought to mean.

Text B Reading Provides Necessary Survival Skills

搭配:

1. With the coming of sth. 随着什么的到来

2. Emphasis on 强调 /名词词组

3. Cue in 提供启示;告诉 /动词词组

4. Wander out of (boredom ) 因为什么(如:烦恼)而走神儿

5. Keep up with 跟上 /动词词组

6. At the top speed 以最快的速度

7. Concentrate on 集中精力 /动词词组

8. Be built on 以什么为基础

9. Skip over 掠过 /动词词组

10. Key to sth. 什么的方法 /名词词组

11. Be alert to 留意 /机警 /形容词

12. Add to sth. 附加 /动词词组

13. Be a great help to doing sth./sth. 对什么有帮助

14. Reward with 给予回报 /动词词组

语言点:

1. Many people would have(这里的 have 不是有的意思,而是使、让得意思; us 在逻辑上能发出 believe 的动作,所以后面的 believe 用动词原型) us believe that we are moving rapidly away from reading as a necessary life skill.

2. Printed word 打印出来的字

3. For adults, reading (动名词作主语) is day to day, either a stumbling block (绊 脚石) or (或者 … 或者) a smooth path to (通往什么的道路) pleasure and opportunity. 4. The purpose of scanning is to get a quick understanding of what to expect from the reading , so that (因此) you will know what you are reading as you go along.

5. Nothing…more than… 没有什么比什么更怎样了

Nothing hurts concentration more than reading too slowly.

6. The more(形容词 /副词比较级) …the more… (形容词、副词比较级)表示越 怎样就越怎样

The more(much 的比较级) words you are familiar with, the less(little 的比较 级) you are aware of reading words and the more you are aware of content and meaning. 7. Pause for a moment on each new word and let(使役动词后用动词原形) it register in your mind.

8. What happens with this method(主语从句中缺主语指物用 what ) is that you will see the word again and again.(表语从句中不缺任何成分用 that )

9. Have an impression of sb./sth. 对 … 某人或某物产生了很强的影响 /动词词组 Unit 13

Text A Insurance

搭配:

1. Be interested in 对什么感兴趣 /动词词组

2. Feel disturbed by 被什么打扰 /动词词组

3. Be eager to do sth. 渴望做某事

4. Be of help=helpful 有帮助的

5. On guard 警惕 /介词词组

6. In effect 事实上

7. Pay for sth. 为某物付款 /动词词组

8. Sth. reminds sb. that+从句 某事使某人想起

9. Depend on sb./sth. 依赖某人或某事 /动词词组

10. Look sth. in the face 正视某事 /动词词组

语言点:

1. Enjoy后面必须接动词的 doing 形式,如:enjoy visiting sb.

2. Our rational minds recognize the many unfortunate events that can occur, but in our hearts we hope that wee might be spared.(容易出翻译句)

3. Yet these three reasons for not discussing(动名词作介词后的宾语,否定词应该 放在动名词前面) insurance provide three excellent reasons why we should learn more about it.

4. Neither should we depend entirely on the agent when we buy insurance.(本句话为 倒装句,因为否定词 neither 被放在句首,这种倒装句的语序是 neither+助动词 +主语 +动词的适当形式 +其他)

5. Although insurance can be complex, its basic concepts are neither difficult nor impossible to learn.

Text B What Is Money and What Are Its Functions?

搭配:

1. Be familiar with 与什么事情很熟悉 /形容词词组

2. Search for 搜索 /动词词组

3. Be accepted as 被接受成为 /动词词组

4. Serve as a standard to sth. 作为衡量什么的标准

5. Sth. is 钱 's worth to sb. 某物对某人来说多少

6. Respond to sth. 反映某事

7. In terms of sth. 就什么而言

8. Be conscious of 意识到

9. Be converted to 被转换成 /动词词组

10. ociate with 把什么和什么相连

语言点:

1. Deferred payment 延期付款; accepted medium 可接受的;工人的中介

2. Convenient 方便的; inconvenient 不方便的

3. Purchasing power 购买力

Unit 14

Text A The Importance of Being Kind and Polite

搭配:

1. End a relationship 结束一段关系

2. Fail to do sth. 没能做某事 /动词词组

3. Fall asleep 入睡 /动词词组

4. Interact with sb. 与某人交往 /动词词组

5. A majority of 大多数的

6. Show respect for 对谁表示尊敬 /动词词组

7. For instance 比如说

8. Be aware that+从句 意识到

9. Pay the price 付出代价 /动词词组

10. Sooner or later 迟早

11. Be close to 接近于 /形容词词组

12. Get ahead 成功

13. Start with 开始 /动词词组

14. Give sb. an edge on sb. 略胜一筹 /动词词组

语言点:

1. Hear sb. do sth. 感官动词后面使用了动词原形

2. Unless(除非) you want to end a relationship, you don't tell another person what you think of her or him like this.

3. Educated people 有教养的人

4. Try to do 的否定是 try not to do

5. That is what manners are about:acting in a civilized way to avoid misunderstanding , friction , and conflict.

6. There are no laws enforcing respect.

7. Acceptable 可接受的; unacceptable 不可接受的

8. Remain为半系动词,后面可接形容词

9. They swear no matter who is around them, they listen to their Walkmans while the teacher is talking to them.

10. Different 不同的; indifferent 默然的

11. Because 为连词,后面要连接一个句子; because of 后接名词或代词

12. Look 和 sound 为半系动词,后接形容词

13. Being polite and showing respect can give us an edge. (动名词作主语) 14. Getting a job is usually based on making the right impression.(动名词作主语) Unit 15

Text A How TV Violence Affects Kids

搭配:

1. Exposure to 暴露于;接触到 e.g. exposure to violence 接触到暴力

2. Have effects on sb./sth. 对某人 /某事有影响; affect 为动词; effect 为名词

3. Point out 指出

4. Distinguish sth./sb. from sth./sb. 区别某事或某人

5. Tend to do sth. 倾向去做某事

6. Make better sense of sth./sb. 更好的理解某人或某事

7. Apply sth. to sth. 把什么应用在什么上

8. Make sb. guilty 让某人很内疚

9. As an alternative to sth./doing sth. 作为什么的替换

语言点:

1. Between 1982 and 1986, the amount of television time allocated(过去分词作后 置定语) each week to(把什么分配给某人,尤指时间) violent programs increased significantly.

2. Given(考虑到) the amount of time that children watch television, it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.

3. Recover 恢复(v. ); recovery 恢复

4. Realistic 现实的(adj. ); unrealistic 不现实的(adj. )

5. Children naturally often want the toys shown(过去分词 shown 做 toys 的宾语补 足语,表是被上演) on and advertised during these programs.

6. Imitate 模仿(v. ); imitative (adj. )

7. Imagine 想象(v. ); imaginative (adj. )

8. Children simply imitate the behavior observed during the program, thus undermining (现在分词做结果状语, 表示破坏) both the imaginative and the expressive functions of play.

9. Appear to be +形容词; e.g. appear to be crazy 好像疯了一样

10. It would be a good idea to control his viewing.(动名词观看电视作宾语) 11. Controlling viewing(动名词作主语) is easier to do during the preschool years than during the school years, so you should initiate a pattern of restricted television watching now.

12. Help your child to interpret what she sees-to think of explanations for the events depicted (过分作后置定语, 表示被描述的) and to imagine how the show is put together. 13. Violent 暴力的; nonviolent 非暴力的

Text B Why Don't Girls Think Like Boys?

搭配:

1. Be better at sth./doing sth. 擅长做某事

2. According to 根据

3. On the average 平均地

4. Show ability in sth./doing sth. 有做某事的能力

5. Be determined by sb./sth. 有什么(人)决定

6. Have an advantage 有什么优势

7. Keep close to sb. 与某人亲密

8. Insist upon doing sth. 坚持做某事

语言点:

1. 时态题:In recent studies, young babies have been observed and tested to discover how different abilities are developed.

2. Thinking ability 思维能力

3. The baby, while seated(不能用 seating ) on its mother's lap, watches a “show” on a small theater stage.

4. Girls immediately become excited(用 ed 是因为这是人内心的情感,如果给别 人造成某种影响应该用 ing 的形式) and begin to make noises that sound like language.

5. Seem后面只能用 to do 的形式

6. But what have the boys been doing(现在完成进行时,表示动作持续) in the years before starting school?

7. It has long been assumed that +从句(长期以来,人们认为)

8. Require doing sth. 要求做某事

Unit 16

Text A Heart Disease:Treat or Prevent?

搭配:

1. pend 时间 /金钱 /经历 on sth./doing sth. 花时间、金钱、经历做某事

2. Emphasis on sth. 强调什么(名词词组)

3. Associate sb./sth. with sb./sth. 把什么与什么联系在一起

4. Take place 发生

5. Enable sb. to do sth.

6. Benefit from 受益于

7. Advantage 优势(n. ); disadvantage 劣势(n. )

8. Be encouraged to do sth. 被鼓励去做某事

9. Pay attention to sb./sth./doing sth. 注意

10. As a result of sth. 作为什么的结果

11. Tend to do sth. 倾向去做某事

12. Rely on sb./sth. 依赖某人 /某事

13. Take responsibility for sth./sb. 对某人或某事负责

14. Succeed in doing sth. 成功作某事

15. Be aware of 意识到

语言点:

1. he death rate from the disease has been increasing at an alarming speed for the past thirty years.

2. Die of 死于疾病; die from 死于外因

3. 时态题:Many operations that were considered impossible a few years ago are now performed every day in U.S. hospitals.

4. 时态题:In the recent past, medical researchers have begun to emphasize the fact that heart disease is associated with(与什么相联系) stress , smoking and a lack of(缺 少) exercise.

5. Many are paying more attention to reducing stress in their lives.

6. The number of smokers in the United States is now far(副词用来强调) below the level of twenty years ago as many people succeed in breaking the habit and as fewer people take it up.

7. Benefit 受益(n. 或 v. ); beneficial 受益的(adj. )

8. Increase 增加; decrease 减少

Text B Dieting Your Way to Health

搭配:

1. Go on 继续

2. Regardless of 不管;无论

3. Have sth. in common 在哪方面有相似之处

4. Lose weight 减肥

5. Do harm to sb./sth.; be harmful to sb./sth. 对某人或某事不利

6. Sth. is supplied to sb. 把某物供应给某人

7. Lose interest in sth. 对什么丧失兴趣

8. Resistance to sth. 对什么的抵制

9. As a result 结果是

10. Suffer from 承受

11. Take the place of 替代

12. Lead to(介词) 导致

13. Result in 导致

14. Lead a happy life 过一个幸福的生活

15. Provide sb. with sth. 给某人提供什么

16. Keep sb./sth. from sth. 事某人或某事免受

17. Take substitutes for sb./sth. 替代

语言点:

1. Though their common aim may seem basically good, they probably do not realize that misguided dieting can do more harm than good to their health.

2. 语法:冠词的顺序问题

a strict diet 试比较 too strict a diet (很严格的饮食)

a great quantity of books 试比较 as great a quantity of books (大量的书)

3. Much less food than usual 此处的 much 放在比较级 less 前起到一个强调的作 用; less 是 little 的比较级

4. What(what 在主语从句中做 realize 的宾语,指事,所以用 what ) they do not realize , however , is that carbohydrates are our bodies' main source of energy.

5. As a result, they try to avoid eating(avoid 这个动词后如果加动词应该用动词 的 ing 形式) these foods, and consequently, they become weaker and less(less 是 little 的比较级) healthy.

6. They begin to have difficulty sleeping(省略介词 in ) properly and start to suffer from radical mood changes.

7. In fact, such artificial sweeteners actually increase one's appetite and lead to one's eating even more than usual.

8. Of course, the fact that misguided forms of dieting result in so many problems does not mean that no dieting is safe or all dieting is harmful to the health.

9. Well-balanced 均衡的

10. Skimmed milk 脱脂牛奶

11. Instead of regular milk, one can take skimmed milk, which contains as many proteins and minerals as regular milk but has had the fat removed.(has 是完成时态的助 动词; had 表示使,让;跟在 has 后面用了 have 的过去分词形式 had ;由于脂肪发不 出 remove 的动作,所以用了 remove 的过去分词形式)

12. In the same way, vegetable oil can be used for cooking instead of animal oil. Unit 17

Text A Panic and Its Effects

搭配:

1. Be diagnosed as 被诊断为

2. Bear similarity to sb./sth. 与什么很相似

3. As to sb./sth 有关于某人或某事

4. At least 至少

5. Become isolated from 与什么相隔立

6. Advice to sb. 给某人的建议

7. Consult sb. for sth. 咨询某人某事

8. Rule out 排出

9. Seek help 寻求帮助

语言点:

1. One afternoon while she was preparing(从 one afternoon 可以判断出是过去时; 从连词 while 可以判断出是进行时态, 所以为过去进行时) dinner in her kitchen, Anne Peters , a 32-year-old(有连字符时不能加复数) housewife , suddenly had severe pains in her chest accompanied(过去分词做后置定语, 表被动, 是伴随的意思) by shortness of breath.

2. Frightened(由于此处表示主语 Anne 自己的情感, 所以使用 frighten 的过去分 词 frightened ) by the thought that she was having a heart attack, Anne screamed for help.

3. Uneasy(心神不安的,不舒服的) -easy

4. They often become easily frightened or feel uneasy in situations where(定语从句 中缺少地点状语) people normally would not be afraid.

5. Many claim that psychological stress could be a logical cause, but as yet, no evidence has been found(完成时的被动语态) to support this theory.

6. It is reported that+从句 据报道; it is generally agreed that+从句 大家认为

7. Danger (n. 危险) -endanger (v. 使危险)

Text B Sleepwalking —— Fact or Fancy?

搭配:

1. Commit murder 谋杀

2. Search for sth. 寻找

3. Wake(过去是为 woke ) up 醒来 /唤醒

4. Have the habit of doing sth. 有做某事的习惯

5. Border on 近似于;称得上

6. Have inhibitions against 抑制

7. In general 通常说来

8. Be exaggerated in 在什么方面很夸张

9. More or less 多多少少 /几乎

10. Become alarmed about 小心,留意

语言点:

1. Endless 无穷无尽的

2. Persons have been said/reported/known to do sth. 据说人们曾经做过 …

3. Lost boy 迷路的小男孩

4. Sleepwalking(动名词作主语) is a scientific reality.

5. What(主语从句中缺少主语指事用 waht ) is certain about sleepwalking is that it is a symptom of emotional disturbance.

6. Doctors say that sleepwalking is much more(common 的比较级是 more common, much 放在比较级前用来强调) common than is generally supposed.医生说梦游要比原 来人们认为的更为普通。

7. Publicized 出版的

8. 形容词或副词 +enough to do sth. 到了某种程度以至于做某事

Unit 18

Text A Why Are Maps Drawn with North at the Top?

搭配:

1. Little more than 仅仅是

2. Place sth. on a sound footing 把什么建立在可靠的基础上

3. Be known to sb./sth. 为某人或某事所知

4. Base on 建立在什么基础之上

5. Rather than 而不是

6. Attempt to 试图做某事

7. In the form of 以某种形式

8. Be unaware that+从句 没有意识到

9. The reason for sth. 什么的原因

10. Interfere with 干涉

11. In accordance with 根据

12. With the spread of sth. 随着什么的扩展

13. Increasing reliance on sb./sth. 越来越依赖

语言点:

1. It was not until many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound footing. 这是一个典型的强调句型, not until many centuries later 是被强调的成分。

2. Flattened 平面的

3. Given(考虑到) the state of knowledge of those times, he got things wrong.

4. His estimate of China and the Atlantic Ocean was far from being accurate.(动名词 作介词宾语,表示一点不准确)

5. Move(v. 移动) -immovable (adj. 固定不变的); use (v. 使用) -useless (adj. 无用的)

6. Assume 假定

Text B You Have a Choice

搭配:

1. Travel side by side 并列行驶

2. Be certain of 对什么很确定

3. Bring about 引起

4. Account for 解释

5. Lead to the same result 导致同一结果

6. Choose one over another 选择一个而不选择另一个

7. Deal with 处理;解决

语言点:

1. We are seated in one of the trains, and with us we have a special speedometer that measures their relative speed.

2. Furthermore, regardless of which explanation we choose, the end result will be the same.

3. Motion(n. 行动) -motionless (静止的)

4. At the train station we cannot tell whether it was our train or not.

5. Only after the other train pulled out of the station could we see that it, and not our train , was moving.本句话为倒装句,由 only+状语从句构成 +助动词 +主语 +动词的适 当形式 +其他

Unit 19

Text A Animals at Risk:Who Cares?

搭配:

1. Keep pace with 跟上步伐

2. Compete with 与谁竞争

3. Threat to sb./sth. 对某人或某事构成威胁

4. Be claim to be 声称

5. Be concerned about 对什么感到很担心

6. Look after 照顾

7. Be armed with 装备

语言点:

1. An animal species becomes(虽然 species 是以 s 结尾,但此处该词跟在冠次 an 后,还是单数,所以谓语 become 用了单数) extinct when it fails to produce enough young in each generation to keep pace with the death rate.

2. Better-adapted 更能适应环境的

3. A number of examples can be given of the way in which(定于从句之所以用 in which ,是因为 in the way表示以某种方式) natural environments are being rapidly changed.

4. Likelihood 可能性

5. Because表示因为是连词, 后面应该接句子; because of 表示因为是介词短语, 后加名词或代词。

6. Provided(that ) +从句,表示如果

7. There is great pleasure in watching wildlife in natural or near-natural environments.

Text B The killer Smogs

搭配:

1. Be filled with 充满

2. Be caused by 由什么引起的

3. Turn into 转变成

4. Combine sth./sb. with 把什么结合在一起

5. Be blown away 被吹走

6. Be due to sb./sth./doing sth. 因为

7. Breath in 呼进

语言点:

1. Fog(n. 雾) -foggy (adj. 雾的)

2. The first reported event 第一个被报道的事

3. Older people with lung or heart diseases were hit(受害最重 /受打击最重) hardest.

4. Deadly 致命的

5. Bad的最高级 worst

6. The polluted air 被污染的空气

7. Affect(v. 影响)

Unit 20

Text A You Can't Do It Because It Hurts Nobody

搭配:

1. Be aware that+从句 意识到

2. Range from…to… 范围从什么到什么

3. Vary in degree 程度不同

4. Be tolerant of 忍受

5. Care about 在意

6. Prevent sb. from sth./doing sth. 阻止某人做某事

7. When it comes to doing sth. 涉及到,谈到

8. A mass of 众多

9. End up with 以什么来结束

10. Keep an eye on sb. 留心,留意

语言点:

1. Custom 风俗、习惯; customs 海关

2. In case+句子,表示 “ 假如,万一 ”

3. Much less than 这里 less 是 little 得比较级, less than是比什么少的意思, much 放在比较级前用来强调。

4. In addition to breaking the law themselves, people tolerate various levels of crime.

5. It may be that, by seeing others do something, we accept it more easily. See sb. do sth. 看到某人做某事的全过程,或, see sb. doing sth.看到某人正在做某事

6. Most people will find it easier to speed on a highway when everybody else is driving over the speed limit.此句为形式宾语句,形式宾语句的顺序如下:主语 +谓语 +it+名词或形容词 +动词不定式 to+其他

7. We must also wonder whether seeing violence on television or reading(动名词作 主语) about it in the newspapers every day makes us tolerate crime more than we should. 8. Used to do sth. 表示过去常常做某事

Be/get/become used to doing sth. 现在习惯于做某事

9. They may not mind cheating on taxes. Mind后面需要加动词的 ing 形式。

10. Acceptable 可以接受的

11. Have misconception about sth. 对什么有错误的观点

12. It is surprising+从句, 之所以用 surprising 而不是 surprised 是由于它表示某事 令某人惊讶; surprised 更倾向于某人内心自我感到惊讶

13. 10% of Canadians have a criminal record. 语法题:百分比或分数, 其后如果是 可数名次复数,那么谓语动词用复数;其后如果是不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。 Text B Marriage in Iran and America:A Study in Contrasts

语言点:

1. Though marriage is practiced(人们都在做的事) in almost all countries of the world , the customs are qite different from one culture to another.(第一自然段第一句) :虽然结婚是世界上几乎所有的国家的人们都在做的事情,但结婚的习俗确随文化不 同而大相径庭。

2. It(形式主语) is interesting for me to(动词不定式作真正主语) compare the customs of marriage in the United States with(compare sth./sb. with sth./sb.拿什么人或 时进行比较) those in my country.(第一自然段第二行)

3. I've lived in the U.S. for four years now, but I'm still not comfortable with(对什 么习惯) the customs here.我在美国已经生活了四年, 但还是不习惯这里的风俗习惯。 4. In fact, what seems strange to me(主语从句中缺少主语指事用 what ) is that courting or dating is not always for the purpose of(为了什么的目的) finding a husband or wife.(第二自然段第二行)其实,我觉得奇怪的是,求爱或者约会的目的并非总 是为了找丈夫或者妻子。

5. Do sth. as a hobby 把做什么当作习惯

6. 翻译题:They seem to have a lot of freedom to decide and do what they want.(第 三自然段第二行)它们有很大的自由来决定和做自己想做的事。

7. Do sth. without the knowledge of sb. 做某事而不让某人知晓

8. In fact, I have known several friends who got married(结婚) without even telling (动名词作介词宾语) their parents or other family members.

9. Wedding ceremony 结婚典礼

10. A prepared speech 准备好的演讲

11. Be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事

12. If they both say “yes , ” and nobody attending(现在分词做后置定语) the wedding stands up to object(站起身反对), they are declared “man and wife.” (第四 自然段倒数第四行)如果双方都说同意,并且出席婚礼的人当中也没人站起来反对, 就宣布他们为夫妻。

13. Be involved in 参与

14. If she is pleased, (表示人内心的情感, 用过去分词作表语) then she will return another day with her son. (第五自然段倒数第四行)如果母亲满意了,他会某天带儿 子再来。

15. The actual marriage ceremony is quite different, however , from (与什么不 同) the American wedding ceremonies I have seen.

16. Twice the bride must remain(保持,是个半系动词,后面接形容词) silent to the questions of the mullah.(第六自然段第六行)对毛拉(参考 593页单词表里对毛 拉的注解)两次提出的问题,新娘都不应作答。

17. Take care of 照顾或处理

18. Sth. given to sb. 赋予给某人某事 e.g. the freedom that is given to American youths 赋予给美国年轻人的权利。

Unit 21

Text A The Language of Uncertainty

第一段

1. Uncertainty spreads through our lives so thoroughly that it dominates our language. (第一句)

Spread (传播) through our lives thoroughly=在我们的生活中无处不在

不确定性在我们的生活中无所不在,以致它支配着我们的语言。

2. 第二句:is made up in large part of words

be made up of 构成; in large part 很大程度上

3. 第五行:“is likely to destroy forever the nation that wages it.”

Be likely to do sth. 很可能做某事; wage it(the war) 发动战争

4. 最后一句话:Lacking (现在分词作原因状语,用现分的原因是主语 we 能够 发出 lack 的动作) any standard for estimating the probability, we are left with(放任) the judgment of the editorial writer.

因为我们缺乏任何估计这一可能性的标准,只好听任社论作者去做出判断了。 第二段

1. 第一句:Such verbal imprecision is not necessarily to be criticized.

Be necessarily to do sth. 做某件事情没有太大必要

句中采用了 to be criticized是由于主语 verbal imprecision(言辞的不精确性)无 法发出 criticize (批评)的动作。

这类言辞的不精确性并非一定要受到批评。

2. 第二句:allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事

be out of the question 不可能;不能接受; be out of question 没问题

第三段

1. 最后一句:can not be reduced to sth./sb.

be reduced to 转化为

第四段

1. 第一句:pin down sth. 准确说明

2. 最后一句:compare sb./sth. with sb./sth. 拿某人或某事对比

第五段

1. First, we find that the number depends, of course, on the items involved.(过 去分词作后置定语,表示涉及)

Depend on 依靠;依赖

当然,我们首先发现的是数目决定于涉及的事务。

2. 第三行:However , unrelated (不相关的) areas sometimes show parallel(相 似、类似) values.

然而,同一个词在不相关的领域中有时量值相似。

3. 第五行:be certain to do sth. 一定做某事

4. 第六行:signify to sb. 对某人意味着

be likely to do sth. 很有可能做某事

第七段

1. 第一行:Thirdly , there is a marked (过分作定语,表示明显的) change with age.

数目随年龄显著变化

2. 第二行:The older the child, the fewer glass balls he will take. 越来越句型 年龄越大,取得玻璃球就越小。

3.P603页,上数第二行:in place of 替代

Text B It Never Rains but It Pours

第一段

1. 第二行:used to do sth. 过去常常做某事

请比较 be/get/become used to doing sth. 习惯做某事

2. 第五行:regard sth./sb. as 把什么看成

with no relevance to sb./sth. 与某人或某事没有联系

第二段

1. 第一句:Advice about how to live a healthy life is one example of the type of received wisdom which is condensed and passed on to the next generation in the form of proverbs.

介词 about 后面是动词不定式 to 作宾语,动词或介词后可以 +特问词 +to do sth.的用法。 E.g. I don't know where to go.或 what to say.

Received wisdom 公认的智慧

Pass on to 传与后代

In the form of 以某种形式

2. 第四行:There is no smoke without fire. 无风不起浪。

第三段

1. 第二行:Don't wash your dirty linen in public. 家丑不可外扬。

2. 第五行:It's no use crying over spilt milk. 覆水难收。

3. 最后一行:Make the best of a bad job. 亡羊补牢。

第四段

1. P615上数第三行:This proverb is based on(基于) an old English law dating back to (追溯到) the 17th century.

2. P615上数第六行:Hence the idea carried in the proverb that everyone should be allowed to make a mistake without being punished for it.

因此,格言包含的寓意是,应该允许任何人犯一次错而不受惩罚。

第五段

1. 第四行:be harmful to sb. 对某人有害

2. 第五行:Don't cause trouble when it(指 trouble ) can be avoided. 能避开时就 别去惹麻烦。

第六段

1. 第一行:As Britain came into contact with(开始接触) other countries and cultures , English became enriched with(变得丰富多彩) the words and wisdom of different languages.

随着英国接触别的国家和文化,英语吸收了不同语言的词汇和智慧,因而变得 丰富多彩。

2. 第五行:It (形式主语) is often easier to carry it through to the end(真正的主 语) than to (不可省略,因为 than 前面与后面应该并列同等) stop halfway. (开始 了某项危险的事业),坚持到底比半途而废要更容易。

第七段

1. 第一行:Some proverbs have been(完成时的使用是因为后面的时间状语为时 间段) in the language for 1, 000 years.

2. 第二行:The message here is that someone who stays with you and helps you in times of trouble, rather than(相当于一个介词,表示而不是) turning their back, is a true friend.

意思是在困难时帮助你,和你共患难而不是对你置之不理的人才是你真正的朋 友。

第八段

1. 第三行:remind sb. that+从句 提醒某人某事

3. P616. 上数第一行 If someone buys you lunch, they will expect a favor in return. (回报)

如果有人请你吃午饭,他会指望将来你给他回报。

第九段

1. 第一行:Some English people are reluctant to(不愿做某事) use proverbs in their everyday conversation because they see them as(把什么看作) vehicles (表现) of too much used wisdom(陈词滥调)。 有些英国人在日常谈话中不愿使用格言,因为他 们把格言看成是陈词滥调的表现。

2. 第四行:written English 书面英语; spoken English 口头英语

homely 简明扼要的

commentary on sth. 点评某事

最后一行:be useful to sb. 对某人来说很有用

Unit 24

Text A Saving the Rainforests for Future Generations

第一段

1. 第三行:They are being cleared for valuable timber and other resources to speed up (加快) the economic growth of the nations in which(定于从句, which 代指前面的 nations ,所以 in which可以理解为 in the nations) they are located.

雨林被砍伐,其目的是获取珍贵木材和其他资源以加快森林所在国家的经济发 展。

2. 第五行:The most recent figures show that the area of rainforest destroyed(过去 分词作后置定语,表被动) last year alone(仅仅) was bigger than the size of Great Britain and Ireland.

最近的数字表明,仅去年一年热带雨林被毁的面积已经大于大不列颠和爱尔兰 两国的面积总和。

第二段

1. 第一行:时态题 If the present rate of deforestation is allowed to continue, the consequences for the earth will be great.在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,主句用将 来时,从句用现在时表将来。

如果听任现在的这种毁林速度继续下去,给地球带来的后果会很严重。

第三段

1. 第一行:According to many scientists, the burning of rainforests is also directly contributing to(促成) the so-called greenhouse effect.

据许多科学家的意见,热带雨林被烧毁还直接促成所谓的温室效应。

第四段

1. 第一行:medicine chest 医药库; unlimited 无限的

2. 第二行:The US National Cancer Institute has identified 2, 000 rainforest plants which could be beneficial in(对什么有益) fighting cancer.

美国国家抗癌协会找到的 2000多种雨林植物队战胜癌症可能有益。

3. 最后一行:derive from 从什么中获得

第五段

1. 第一行:Plant species are not the only forms of life threatened(过去分词在名次 后作定语,表被动,意思为:受到什么的威胁) with extinction in the rainforest. 植物物种并不是热带雨林中唯一受到灭绝威胁的生物。

2. 最后一行:since the turn of the century 自本世纪初

第六段

1. 第一行:In the face of (面对) all these facts, it seems senseless (愚蠢的) for countries to continue destroying (continue doing sth. 继续做正在做的事) their rainforests.

面对所有这些事实,哪些国家仍然继续毁林看来十分愚蠢。

2. 第三行:The countries in which(定语从句,之所以在 which 前面加了介词 in 是由于定语从句中有一个词组 be located in :位于什么地方。 当定于从句中有动介词 组时, 正式的用法是把介词放在关系词前) the rainforests are located are all quite poor and overpopulated.

雨林所在的国家都十分贫穷,人口过多。

3. 第四行:One of them, Brazil , has a population of (拥有多少人口) 140 million, about half of whom(定语从句关系词代指前面的 population ) are living in absolute poverty.

其中之一的巴西就有 1.4亿人口,差不多一半的人生活在绝对贫困状态之中。 4. 第五行:The governments in these countries are usually also too weak to(太怎么 样以至于不能怎样) stop large companies and powerful individuals from(stop sb. from sth./doing sth.阻止某人做某事) destroying the rainforests.

这些国家的政府往往也太软弱,制止不了大公司和有权势的个人毁坏森林。 5. 第九行:The governments often have no choice but (仅有) to turn a blind eye. 政府常常别无选择,只能视而不见。

第七段

1. 第一行:The only solution to(问题的解决方案) the problem, then , seems to be for the richer countries of the world to help the countries where (where 在这里等于 in which) the rainforests are located.

那么解决问题的唯一办法看来是要靠世界上的富国帮助热带雨林所在的国家。 2. 第七行:regard sth./sb. as 把某事 /某人当作什么; make a living 谋生

第八段

1. Such programs could teach the local people how to select trees worth exporting (worth 后面加动词的 ing 形式) and to cut only those trees down while leaving the rest, so that(因此) the basic make-up of the forest would not be disturbed.

这些计划可以教会本地人怎样选择值得出口的树木,仅仅砍伐那些树,从而留 下其他树木,这样就可保持森林的基本构成不受破坏。

2. On the spot 就地

第九段

1. Last but not least 最后同样重要的是

2. Used paper 用过的纸

3. Demand for sth. 要求某事

Text B Life on the Tundra

第一段:

1. Only those plants and animals that are adapted to(适应于) the hostile environment (定于从句) can survive in it.

只有那些适应恶劣环境的植物和动物才能在这里生存。

第二段

1. At the Arctic Circle, the sun cannot be seen above the horizon in December.

12约在北极圈,无法见到太阳升出地平线。

2. Over the northern reaches(名词:可以到达的地区, 区域, 范围) of the tundra, no sunlight can be seen at all for several months of the year.

在冻土带的北部大片地区,一年中有好几个月根本见不到太阳。

第三段

1. To some degree 在某种程度上

2. But even in the warmest month, the temperature only averages(动词:平均) about 50 degrees F. 但即使在最温暖的月份,气温平均才大约 50华氏度。

第四段

1. 第一行:Because of the intense cold, the subsoil of the tundra remains(半系动 词:保持) permanently frozen(受冻) to a great depth(达到很深)。

由于严寒,冻土带的下层土壤常年冻得很深。

2. 第三行:It is this thin layer of active soil that(强调句型) supports all living things on the tundra. 就是这层薄薄的活土地支持者冻土带所有的生命。

第五段

1. Give birth to 赋予生命; lifeless 无生命的

第六段

1. Prevent sb. from sth./doing sth. 阻止某人做某事

第七段

1.In search of 寻找; hunt for 寻找

Unit 25

Text A American Men Don't Cry

第一段

1. 第一行:American men don't cry because it is considered not characteristic of(什 么的特征) men to do so.

美国男人不哭,因为人们认为哭不是男人的特征。

2. 第二行:Cry is a “weakness” characteristic of the female, and no American make wants to be identified with(被认为,被理解成为) anything in the least(一点、丝毫 不) weak or feminine.

没有一个美国男人愿意被人认为有丝毫软弱或女人气。

3. 第四行:Crying (动名次放在系动词前作主语) , in our culture, is identified with childishness , with weakness and dependence.

在我们的文化中,哭被看成是幼稚、软弱和依附的表现。

4. 第五行:No one likes a crybaby, and we disapprove of (不赞同) crying even in children , discouraging (劝阻) it in them as early as possible.

没有人喜欢孩子哭。即使孩子们我们也不赞成他们哭,尽量早劝阻他们哭。 5. 第七行:In a land so devoted to(致力于、专心于) the pursuit of(对什么的追 求) happiness as ours, crying really is rather un-American.

在我们这样一个一心追求幸福的国家里,苦实在不是美国的风格。

6. 第九行:Adults must learn not to cry in situations in which(本句话为定于从句, 在关系代词 which 前用了介词,此处的原因是由于:which 代指 situations ;介词 in 放在 which 前等于 in situations, 表示在一些情况下) it is permissible for a child to cry. 在一些场合,孩子们可以哭,但成年人必须学会做到不哭。

7. 第十行:Women being the “weaker”and “dependent”sex , it is only natural that they should cry in certain emotional situations.本句话为虚拟语气:it is+形容词 +that+主 语 +(should 可以省略) +动词原型

女人是软弱的和依附的性别,他们在某些动情的场合下哭是很自然的。

8. 最后一行:So goes the American belief with regard to(关于、对于) crying. So goes sth. 这就是 …

这既是美国人有关哭的信念。

第二段

1. 第一行:impress on sb. 使某人铭记

2. 第二行:And so we condition males in America not to cry whenever they feel like doing so.

Condition sb. to do sth. 使某人出于某种状态、使习惯于、使适应;调教

Condition sb. not to do sth. 请注意此处的否定式

Feel like doing sth. 喜欢做某事 feel like后面加动词的 ing 形式

我们也是这样调教美国男人,不管他们什么时候想哭,都能做到不哭。

3. 第三行:it is not that… , but that… 不是因为这个原因,而是因为那个原因。 they are trained not to cry 请注意:否定词被放在非谓语动词 to 前

4.P609第二行:And so the “little man” controls his desire to cry and goes on doing so until(直到什么时候才) he is unable to cry even when he wants to.

Go on to do sth. 继续做某事(做不同的事)

Go on doing sth. 继续做某事(做同一件事)

于是这位小男子汉控制自己哭的愿望,并一直这样继续下去,直到后来甚至想 哭的时候也不会哭了。

5.P609第九行:be known as 被认为是

6. 第十行:serve a function for sth. 起作用; as a whole 作为整体

7. 第十行:Any interference with(干涉) homeostasis is likely to(有可能做某事) be damaging to(对谁造成损害) the organism.

对体内平衡的任何干扰都可能损害机体。

9. 最后一行:incapacity to do sth. 没有做某事的能力; capacity to do sth. 有做某 事的能力

第四段

1. 第一行:To be human is to weep. 哭是人的天性。

2. 第一行:The human species is the only one in the whole of animated nature that sheds tears.(流泪)

人类是动物界中唯一能流泪的物种。

3. 第二行:inability to do sth. 没有做某事的能力; capacity to do sth. 有做某事 的能力

4. 第五行:among other things 除了其他方面;此外

5. 第七行:If we feel like it, let us all have a good cry-and clear our minds of those cobwebs of confusion which have for so long prevented us from understanding the natural necessity of crying.

Clear sth. of sth. 把什么从什么中清除

Prevent sb. from doing sth. 组织某人做某事

假如我们想哭,就让我们痛痛快快地哭一场,把那些长期妨碍我们认知哭泣这 一自然需要的那些陈腐混乱观念从我们的头脑中清除出去。

Text B Stop Worrying Now!

第一段

1. 第一行:Worry is one of the most common(最常见的, most common是 common 的最高级) forms of emotional distress in our culture. 忧虑是精神苦恼在我们文化中最 常见的一种表现形式。

2. 第二行:Almost everyone spends a considerable(相当大的, 相当多的, 相当可 观的) amount of present moments worrying about the future.

Spend time doing sth. 花时间做某事

几乎每个人都把现在相当多的时间用于为将来忧虑。

3. 第四行:Obsessive worry will never make things any(用来修饰比较级, 表示强 调) better.

过分的忧虑完全于事无补。

4. 第五行:In fact, such worry will very likely help you to be less effective in dealing with the present.

Be effective in sth./doing sth. 有效的做某事

Deal with sth. 处理某事

事实上,这种忧虑很可能让你在处理现在的事情时成效更小。

第二段

1. 第一行:In order to reduce worry, it is necessary to understand the subconscious psychological “payoffs” for choosing to worry in the first place.

in order to do sth. 为了做某事

it 在这里是形式主语,阴影部分是动词不定式作真正的主语

payoff for doing sth. 做某事所得到的补偿

in the first place 首先

为了减少忧虑,首先有必要弄明白人们爱忧虑所能得到的潜意识心里补偿是怎 么回事。

2. 第三行:This is a common lament, and one with a payoff that keeps you standing still and avoiding the risk of action.

Keep sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事

人们普遍这样诉苦,这种诉苦的回报会让你安之若素,避免贸然行动。

3. 第五行:Clearly , it is easier, if less rewarding, to worry than to be an active, involved (投入的) person.

很清楚,如果只求较少回报的话,做一个愁苦忧虑的人比作一个积极投入的人 更容易。

第三段

1. 第一行:By worrying about someone else, you can label yourself as a caring person.

Worry about sb. 担心某人

Label oneself as 把自己算 /看成

Caring person 关心别人的人

你为别人操心,这样你可以把自己算成关心别人的人。

2. 第三行:I can't help worrying-it's because I love you.

Can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事

我做不到不为你操心 -因为我爱你。

3. 第三行:A handsome dividend, although lacking in(缺少) logical , healthy thinking.

这是个相当不错的回报,只不过缺乏合乎逻辑的、正常的思维。

第四段

1. 第二行:You have a good reason for hanging on to the worry behavior.

Have a good reason for doing sth. 很有理由做某事

Hang on to sth. 继续做某事;紧紧抓住;求助;依靠于;

因此你有很好的理由继续忧虑下去。

2. 第三行:Similarly , you may find yourself smoking more in troublesome situations, and can use the worry to avoid giving up smoking.

Find sb. doing sth. 发现某人做某事(这里的 doing 是作宾语补足语的)

Avoid doing sth. 避免做某事(avoid 后面只能加动词的 ing 形式)

同样,你可能发现你在烦恼的情况下抽烟的更多,你可以用忧虑作口实,不去 戒烟。

3. 第五行:It may be easier for you to worry about chest pains than to risk finding out the truth, and then having to deal directly with yourself.

It 为形式主语,阴影中的动词不定式是真正的主语

Risk doing sth. 冒险做某事(risk 后面只能加动词的 ing 形式)

Deal with oneself 处理自己的问题

为胸痛而忧虑比冒险找出病因,然后不得不自己直接处理自己的问题更容易做 到。

第五段

1. 第二行:While these may not seem to be payoffs, they do result in(导致) considerable attention from others and justify much self-pity as well.

尽管这不能算回报,但它能引起别人的深切关注并能证明自怜是有道理的。 2. P704第二行:And some people would rather be pitied(被人怜悯的) than fulfilled (充分发挥自己才能的)。

有些人宁愿被人怜悯也不愿充分发挥自己的才能。

第六段

1. Now that 既然; devise some measures for doing sth. 想出做某事的措施

第七段

1. 第一行:Begin to view your present moments as times to live, rather than times to worry about the future.

View sb. as 把某人看成; rather than 而不是

你要开始把你现在的时间看成生活的时光而不是为未来忧虑的时光。

2. Catch oneself doing sth. 发现某人做某事 e.g. catch yourself worrying 发现自 己忧虑

3. 最后一行:Then begin to attack(开始着手解决) whatever it is you're avoiding. 然后你就着手解决你正在逃避的任何事。

第八段

1. 第一行:A friend of mine spent a week on an island off the Connecticut coast. Spend 时间 on sth. 花时间做某事

我的一个朋友在康涅狄格州海岸边的一个岛子上住了一个星期。

2. Enjoy后面要加动词的 ing 形式

3. 第四行:She carried a rock in her hand and resolved to(决心做某事) show no fear as the dogs came running(分词作伴随状语) toward her.

他手里拿了一块石头,下定决心,当狗向她跑来时,决不畏惧。

4. 第六行:Seeing (现在分词表原因,因为看到) someone who refused to back down , they turned and ran away.

这些狗看见有人并不萎缩,转身就跑掉了。

第九段

1. As a result of 作为什么的结果

2. 第四行:What's the worst thing that could happen to(发生在某人身上) me , and what is the likelihood of it occurring(发生,请注意动词的词性)。

可能发生在我身上的最糟糕的事是什么?发生的可能性有多大?

第十段

1. 第一行:Act in direct conflict with(与什么发生冲突, 针锋相对) your usual areas of worry.

你行事要和你平常忧虑的事情针锋相对。

第十一段

1. 第一行:These are some techniques for minimizing worry in your life.

Technique for doing sth. 做某事的方法

这是一些能够最大限度减少你生活忧虑的技术。

。

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