欧美一级不卡免费看_ -|五行相克├攸县幼儿园
淘宝减肥药排行榜十强
只推淘宝安全有效的减肥药

当前位置:欧美一级不卡免费看 > 减肥产品

欧美一级不卡免费看

时间:2020-07-01 17:53  编辑:六安卫生局

欧美一级不卡免费看

ML10 Gold Standard laser QC10 ballbar system

MCG machine checking gauge

Laser

The ultimate metrology tool for traceable machine tool and motion system analysis

MCG

A simple check of CMM volumetric performance and repeatability

Ballbar

Check machine positioning performance and

diagnose machine errors automatically

Metrology is our business

Real metrology solutions

With over 30 years of experience in the field of engineering metrology,

Renishaw has an international reputation for producing high quality measuring systems. From the touch trigger probe to the complex Raman imaging microscope, Renishaw brings real solutions to real problems.

2

ML10 laser

Research and

development facility (Scotland)

Renishaw has established subsidiary

companies around the globe to support all major markets, with appointed distributors for other key areas. They offer extensive after sales support through training, technical support, repair and recalibration services.

Meeting the challenges of modern industry The demands of modern industry to meet ever tighter tolerances, and the requirements of international quality standards, mean that the performance of manufacturing machinery has never been more important. T o meet this demand, Renishaw’s measurement systems assess, monitor and improve machine performance. These systems combine the best available mechanical, electronic and optical technologies for easy use, flexibility and portability.

Systems normally reserved for research

laboratories and standards rooms can now be

used directly on the shop-floor.

When you purchase a laser or ballbar

system from Renishaw, you are buying into a

worldwide support network that understands

machine metrology, machine service and

the demands of maintaining accuracy in a production environment.

Renishaw’s measurement systems are

accepted throughout the world as the industry

standard for machine performance testing.

After sales support

Renishaw designs, manufactures and supplies metrology systems of the highest quality and reliability to enable customers worldwide to carry out dimensional measurements to traceable standards.

Our product offerings enhance quality and productivity, and we strive for total customer satisfaction through superior customer service.

Our aim is to provide leading edge technology

by encouraging innovation to address our

customers’ needs.

We are committed to sustained growth

through continued investment in product

development and manufacturing methods.

Renishaw wishes to be recognised as a

leader and contributor in our field and our

community.

We wish to achieve our aims in a way that is caring, open and honest.Renishaw is an environmentally conscious and responsible company. We strive to ensure that all aspects of the business have the least

harmful effect on the environment.

The Renishaw mission

Assessing machine performance

Servicing and repair (USA)The industry “standards”

3

Table of contents

Metrology is our business .................................................................Real metrology solutions .....................................................................Control machine performance ........................................................ML10 Gold Standard...........................................................................QC10 system .......................................................................................Machine checking gauge .....................................................................Understanding machine performance .........................................The benefits ......................................................................................Integrated use of QC10 and ML10 systems......................................Laser measurement system ........................................................System architecture .......................................................................Measurement options .........................................................................The laser and environmental compensation ......................................The world’s leading laser measurement system ................................Specifications and accuracy to be proud of .......................................More applications using the ML10 laser system .................................Laser measurement software ........................................................

Linear measurement .....................................................................Angular measurement ...................................................................Straightness measurement ...........................................................Squareness measurement ............................................................Flatness measurement .................................................................Rotary measurement ....................................................................Dynamic measurement ................................................................System accessories .....................................................................System interfacing .........................................................................QC10 ballbar system ...................................................................The 6 steps to machine confidence...............................................Ballbar accessories........................................................................ Ballbar measurement software....................................................... Machine checking gauge ............................................................Service and support ....................................................................Website ..........................................................................................

236-4137-3842-4344-4534-3528-2930-3132-3326-2724-2522-2320-2115141010-358-96-76-95544-521211ML10 laser and EC10

environmental compensator

QC10 ballbar system

The optics family

1316-1718-1940-4146

39

The ML10 Gold Standard laser measurement system

Used for comprehensive accuracy assessment of machine tools, CMMs and other

position-critical systems, the ML10 laser measurement system is by far the best tool for the job.

Control machine performance

ML10 Gold Standard laser system

PCB drilling machine

(photo courtesy of Exitech Ltd)

CMM calibration

4

The facts speak for themselves....

• The most accurate system of its

type – system accuracy of ± 0.7 ppm is maintained throughout its operating range of 0 °C – 40 °C (32 °F – 104 °F), a standard level of performance that NO OTHER competitive system can match.

• Interferometry is traceable –

all Renishaw’s laser measurements, including straightness and angular, are interferometric, and therefore based on the internationally traceable standard wavelength of laser light.

• Quick and safe alignments with a tripod

mounted laser – all alignment can be undertaken comfortably and safely outside the machine. No need to lose axis travel or suffer the effects of cable drag on the measurement.

• Optics designed for the shop user –

all optics housings are made from hard anodised aluminium, resulting in light, durable optical components that thermally acclimatise to a shop environment 10 times quicker than steel optics housings. The new patented LS350 beam steerer makes alignment simple, even for beginners.

• Long range measurement – linear

measurements can be taken on axes up to 80 metres (3200 inches) in length, with the option to SIMULTANEOUSL Y measure the parallel axes of dual drive machines.

• Rotary axis calibration – the combination

of the ML10 laser with RX10 rotary indexer provides the only FULL Y AUTOMATIC

method of rotary axis calibration on CMMs and machine tools.

• Pioneers of error compensation software

– packages that correct for linear positioning errors of an axis are available for most machine controllers.

• Dynamic analysis - of motion, vibration,

acceleration and velocity to give a full understanding of real dynamic motion characteristics.

Conformance to international standards: As manufacturing industry is constantly

evolving, it is important that data is captured and assessed according to recognised

standards. Renishaw understands this need and supports its systems and users with data capture and analysis to both national and international standards.

Remember that while single measurements (such as laser diagonal) can give indicative values for changes in machine metrology, only a comprehensive measurement of each parameter and axis can yield the detailed

information needed for a full understanding.

Pick and place

(photo courtesy of Probetest)

The QC10 ballbar system

The QC10 ballbar system is recognised in major international standards, and by thousands of users worldwide, as the best tool for quickly checking CNC machine tool positioning performance on a regular basis.The system is easy to set-up, simple to run and is an essential tool for all machine shops, service companies and machine tool builders.

• Helps to cut costs – regular use of

the QC10 ballbar results in reduced

maintenance, reduced machine downtime and reduced scrap.

• Easy set-up – patented centering design

makes set-up simple and quick.

• Simple to run – Ballbar 5 software uses an

intuitive step-by-step approach to test set up, data capture and auto diagnosis, all with point and click navigation.

• Very quick testing – 10 minutes is all

that is typically needed to assess the performance of your machine.

• Understand changes in machine

performance – the unique diagnostic software turns the captured data into a prioritised list of ways to improve a machine’s performance.

• Aids predictive maintenance – through

regular use, it will be clear which machines need attention, and when.

• Strongly recommended for machine tools

using inspection probing.

• An ideal verification tool between

laser calibrations.

• Compliance with standards – ISO, ANSI,

QS and AT A.

Quick and powerful testing

The machine checking gauge

• Exclusively for CMMs – for assessing

volumetric performance.

• Quick to set up and run. It is an

ideal verification tool between CMM recalibrations.

• Identify changing machine performance – if

the volumetric numbers are changing, so is the machine.

• Full diagnosis of results available using

online results service.

• Flexible set-up – supplied with a range of

extensions, the MCG can be adapted to test all sizes of CMM.

• Compliance to standards – this

measurement method complies with BS EN ISO 10360-2.

5

Windows ® and Internet Explorer are the registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

Zerodur ® is a registered trademark of Schott Glass Technologies Incorporated.

Trademark acknowledgements

QC10 ballbar

QC10 ballbar kit

Machine checking gauge

As a machine builder you benefit from . . .

As a machine user you benefit from . . .

Understanding machine performance to . . .

•Minimise scrap and improve accuracy of cut parts: By ensuring that a machine is working to specification, the chance of scrap will be minimised. It also enables tighter tolerances to be held on jobs, improving overall accuracy and quality.

•Minimise machine downtime: Gain a detailed picture of how each characteristic of a machine’s performance is varying over time, predict when maintenance work will be required for a specific machine, and establish contingency plans in advance.

•Win machining contracts from your competitors: When customers need confidence in the quality of your machining, calibration graphs and regular performance evaluation results of your machines are excellent proof. These can give you a valuable competitive advantage over other machining contractors, who may not perform such tests.

•Comply with the ISO 9000 series of standards: It is a requirement of the ISO 9000 series of quality standards that manufacturing and inspection equipment is calibrated, monitored and controlled.

•Grade the performance of all your machines: By calibrating all your machines, you will be able to grade them according to their relative machining ability. Assigning specific toleranced jobs to machines capable of holding these tolerances, ensures that they are fit for the required purpose and less likely to produce scrap.

•Extend the life of your machine: Certain types of machine errors can lead to excessive wear in the drive system and guideways of machines. By pinpointing and eliminating these errors at an early stage, you can improve the working life of a machine.

•Validate the quality of a new machine upon delivery: Often shipping and site installation can have a detrimental effect

on a machine’s accuracy. A performance check on the machine immediately after installation, confirms its readiness to begin work.

7

Annual calibrations

T ypically, laser calibrations are performed on an annual

basis. Using the ML10 laser measurement system to gather a comprehensive view of all the geometric and dynamic characteristics of a machine, means that information obtained can direct any machine maintenance that may be required. However, machine performance can vary significantly throughout a year, particularly if the machine has crashed or has been moved. Therefore, annual calibrations should ideally be supplemented by regular machine performance checks.

2007200

6

2005

Understanding machine performance -

integrating performance testing and calibration using QC10 and ML10

Perform a full laser calibration test, measuring all geometric, positioning and motion characteristics for each axis. Compensate or repair as appropriate.

1. Perform full laser calibration Immediately benchmark the calibration with the QC10 ballbar test on machine tools, or MCG test on CMMs. The quick tests are now linked to the comprehensive laser calibration.

2. Benchmark with a ballbar

8

Regular performance tests

The QC10 ballbar can evaluate machine tool performance

quickly and simply, with a fully automated test procedure. In

only 10 minutes*, the positional data obtained can identify and

quantify a wide variety of errors on a machine, from machine

geometry to controller related problems.

Re-check the machine with the QC10 ballbar

or MCG at regular weekly or monthly intervals,

following machine relocation or machine crash,

or when parts begin to drift from tolerance.

Regular pre-planned checks enable a machine’s

performance to be charted over time and future

accuracy problems to be intelligently predicted

through trend analysis.

3. Regularly re-check machine

After maintenance work, the machine can be

re-calibrated using the ML10 laser measurement

system. At this point it is possible to refer back to

stage 2 to repeat the cycle.

If overall machine accuracy falls below an

acceptable level, use the QC10 diagnostic

software to analyse and pinpoint problem

areas. On CMMs, it is advisable to perform a

laser test to identify the specific location of

an error.

5. Repair, and re-calibrate with a laser

4. Pinpoint problem areas

*Based on typical feedrates and test radius

9

Maintenance can then be quickly focused on the identified

problem areas, adjustments made and the results confirmed

by performing a further QC10 ballbar test or ML10 laser

measurement. Similarly, the MCG can establish a benchmark

volumetric accuracy value for CMMs from which trends can be

ascertained at regular intervals.

Using Ballbar 5 HPS software users can

review a series of tests via the machine history

function.

Week 3

X X X

X X X

W e e

k2

X X

X

X

X

X

X W e e k

1

X X

X

X X

X

X

Laser measurement system - system architecture

The Renishaw laser measurement system is an ideal solution for the complete calibration of machines, enabling the

measurement of a wide range of geometric and dynamic characteristics. It employs a flexible, modular system architecture ensuring that it can best fit your specific measuring requirements, and grow as they grow.

page 13

page 12

page 34EC10 Gold Standard compensation unit

ML10 Gold Standard laser

Laser measurement system -

the laser and environmental compensation measurement system

comparisons with competitor opposite).

13

The world’s leading laser measurement system

The EC10 Gold Standard compensation unit

The world’s leading laser measurement system Environmental temperature (°C)

Competitor’s linear measurement accuracy**

Including material compensation effects

Excluding material compensation effects

Environmental temperature (°C)

Renishaw linear measurement accuracy*

* Environmentally compensated linear measurement accuracy. **Data as of March 2005

• Performance specifications. - Renishaw’s accuracy

specification is derived in accordance with recognised

procedures for the calculation of measurement uncertainty (EA - 4/02) for laser stability, sensor output, and all key parameters and calculations affecting the final measurement.

Overall system accuracy is quoted to the internationally recognised 95% confidence level (k=2) and includes allowance for drift in service. Fully documented calculations of the error budget for ML10 and EC10 are available for review. Calculations are also available to support the specification of individual measuremant accuracies (eg. angular and straightness).

• Field performance - With an installed base of thousands

of units worldwide operating over 18 years, our track record shows that Renishaw’s laser systems continue to meet specifications day-in day-out, under a wide

variety of conditions. This level of performance has been repeatedly verified by third party testing (including national laboratories).

• Accuracy for all measurements - Laser linear

measurement accuracy is only part of the metrology

solution. Y ou can also capture and analyse linear, angular, straightness, squareness, flatness and rotary axis motion with your ML10 Gold Standard system, all using traceable linear measurement as a basis.

This compensated wavelength is combined with the fringe count from the ML10 laser to give compensated distance measurements with guaranteed accuracy.

To compensate for a machine’s thermal expansion, the EC10 unit can also receive data from up to three material temperature sensors which can be placed in strategic positions on the machine under test. This normalises all

readings to a reference temperature of 20 °C (68 °F). Thermal compensation is particularly important when performing linear measurements, especially on large machines or machines made of high expansion materials.

The accuracy of a laser distance measurement system is primarily dependant on how well the system can compensate for the effects of air refraction changes on the wavelength of the laser. Without this compensation, accuracy of any system is significantly compromised. Recognising this fact, Renishaw has designed its environmental compensation unit (EC10) to be extremely accurate.

The EC10 compensation unit continually monitors the surrounding environment by collecting data from highly

accurate sensors which measure the ambient air temperature, pressure and humidity. From this data, the unit calculates the true laser wavelength using Edlen’s equation.

Published linear system accuracy, Renishaw competitor

Specifications and accuracy to be proud of

Environmental compensation (EC10)

14

Applications using the ML10 laser measurement system

Problem:

• LVDT sensors and gauges have a non-linear output versus displacement response

• Product requires calibration for traceability

and improved accuracy

• Traditional calibration methods used

manual “barrel micrometers” which were slow and expensive to maintain

The Renishaw ML10 laser interferometer can LVDT sensor calibration

*More details are available at www.renishaw.com

More applications using the ML10 laser system

Software designed with the

user in mind

The user interface to the ML10 laser uses

dedicated Windows compatible software

exclusively developed by Renishaw.

The Laser10 software provides the capability

for static and dynamic measurement of

a machine’s linear, angular, straightness,

squareness and rotary accuracy. It is supplied

with dynamic, dual axis, digital indicator,

electronic level, universal error compensation

and on-line help capability as standard.

Flexibility of data collection

To meet the requirements of different

applications, the laser software employs an

array of automatic and manual data

capture methods:

Manual:

Keyboard, remote hand switch.

Automatic:

Time and position based, dynamic, encoder

triggered (via the TB10 trigger box).

Simultaneous dual measurement

Data can be collected from two axes

simultaneously and then analysed

independently.

Laser measurement software -

Laser10 software

16

Laser data is analysed to the

following standards: ISO 230-2, ANSI B5.54,

ANSI B89, VDI 3441, VDI 2617, JIS-B6330

and GB-10931-89.

Data analysis to international standards

Linking to other instruments

The software is extremely flexible, enabling

the capture, storage and presentation of data

from supported electronic levels and digital

indicators. The captured data can then be

analysed in accordance with national and

international standards.

Minimum computer

requirements

• Windows® XP operating system*

• 1 Ghz processor and

256 MB RAM,

• Minimum screen resolution

1024 x 768 pixels,

• CD-ROM drive for

software installation,

• DX10 interface kit (USB) required

for data communications with

notebooks or desktop PCs.

• An RS232 port or USB-serial

adapter will be required if using

accessories such as error

compensation software, RX10

rotary axis calibrator or the

digital indicator interface (ask for

details).

• Laser measurement software

is supplied on CD-ROM in the

following languages:-

English, German, French, Italian,

Spanish, Japanese, Chinese,

Taiwanese, Russian and Korean

Note: *PCM20 available for

notebooks using older Windows

operating systems.

on a “stand alone” basis.

Operating within the Windows environment,

data can be exported into other applications

in raw format. Alternatively, analysed data can

be cut and pasted into other applications,

thus enabling professional presentation of

test results.

*Note that some language versions have a system manual

with the key sections translated, all other sections in English.

17

Laser measurement software -

QuickView™ software

Minimum computer requirements

• Windows ® XP • 1 GHz processor and 256 MB RAM

• Minimum Screen resolution 1024 x 768 pixels,• CD-ROM drive for software installation,• 1 free USB port

• DX10 interface kit (USB) required for data communications for both notebooks and desktop PC.• QuickView™ software is supplied on CD-ROM in the following languages:- English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, Taiwanese, Russian and Korean.

QuickView™ is a simple to use, intuitive

software package to capture, review and save dynamic data acquired via the ML10 laser measurement system.

In conjunction with the DX10 interface kit - a new laser to PC interface - QuickView™ enables users to determine dynamic

characteristics of machine tools, CMMs and other motion systems and structures and

provides users with the following functionality:

• Live data display in an oscilloscope style format

• Data capture rate of 5 kHz

• Supports measurement with linear, angular or straightness measurement optics

• Three modes of data capture: free running, single shot trigger and multi-shot trigger • Distance, velocity and acceleration display modes

• User selectable filters of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ms response

• Cursors for measurement of amplitude, time and frequency

• Manual scale, pan and zoom functions

allowing ‘close up’ analysis of selected data • Auto scale option Captured data can easily be loaded into supporting applications such as MathCAD, Mathmatica and Excel for further analysis using CSV file format. It can also be loaded into Renishaw’s Laser10 software allowing FFT analysis.

Laser measurement systems have become

common place, not just for equipment

calibration but also for use as an investigative and analytical tool during development and build processes. Increasingly stringent quality assurance programmes, continued development of higher speed machining processes and the demand for increased reliability and repeatability have all influenced this.

Technological developments within industries such as microelectronics, semiconductor, biomedical and digital imaging have identified a new level of positional and dynamic

requirements on a diverse range of machines such as PCB drillers, wafer dicers, pick and place and XY motion stages.

Knowledge of a position sensitive machine’s dynamic characteristics - acceleration,

velocity, vibration, settle time, resonance and damping - is critical in many applications. These characteristics will influence

operational capabilities such as positional accuracy, repeatability, surface finish, throughput and wear.

Recognising the need to identify the dynamic behaviour of machines in a wide range of industries, Renishaw’s new QuickView™ software will instantly be recognised as an important and valuable diagnostic tool.

Wafer dicing machine calibration (photograph courtesy of Manufacturing Technology Inc)DX10 interface (USB)

w

Laser measurement system - linear measurement

This is the most common form of measurement performed on machines. The system measures

linear positioning accuracy and repeatability by comparing the position displayed on a machine’s readout with the true

position measured by the laser. These values can then be viewed, printed and statistically analysed by the system’s software to national and international standards. On many of today’s machine tools, it is also possible to take this process one step further and automatically download the measured data to a compensation table in the machine’s controller. In this way, a machine’s positioning accuracy can be verified and significantly improved, quickly and easily.

Set-up

The components used in this measurement comprise:

• Linear beam-splitter • Retro-reflectors

• Targets (for easy optical alignment)

In linear measurement, one retro-reflector is secured to the beam-splitter, to form the fixed length reference arm of the interferometer. The other retro-reflector moves relative to the beam-splitter and forms the variable length measurement arm. The laser system tracks any change in the separation between the measurement arm retro-reflector and beam-splitter.

To mount the optics on a machine, a range of accessories and fixtures is available. There are additional accessories which can be supplied to help measurement set-up and data capture. These are described on the

system accessories section on page 32.

X axis linear positioning measurement on a VMC

Long range retro-reflector and periscope

Linear optics

18

With the addition of a linear error

compensation package, the data obtained from a calibration cycle is used to calculate compensation values, which can then be fed into a machine’s controller. Once the compensation has been completed,

a final laser check ensures that a machine’s positioning accuracy has been significantly improved. The software is used in

combination with the Laser10 calibration software and now includes a “wizard” to make axis compensation even easier.Compensation packages are available to interface with many of today’s machine controllers* including:

• Fanuc OM and OT

• Fanuc 10 - 12, 15, 16, 18, 20 & 21 • NUM 750, 760, 1060.• Mazak M2, M32, M PLUS

• Siemens 810, 810D, 820, 840, 840C,

840D, 850, 880

• Acramatic 2100

• Cincinnati A850, A850SX, A950• Combination package (includes all

the above)

*Note that error compensation software may not work with “customised” controller specifications.

• Highly durable optics –

the aluminium optics housings, including threads, are all

hard-anodised, corrosion proofed and shock resistant.

• Improved dynamic response –

with less than half the weight of steel optics housings, machine loading is reduced.

• Quick thermal acclimatisation –

aluminium optics acclimatise 10 times quicker than steel optics.

• No thermal drift problems –

the interferometer is remote from the heat of the laser head, with the laser heat source remaining outside the machine.

• Easier set-up –

the remote interferometer can be fitted to specific areas of interest on a machine, without loss of axis travel. This also allows for multiple axis measurements to be made from one position, without the need to re-align the laser.

• External laser alignment –

tripod mounted laser makes for easy alignment outside the machine.

• Easier long-range alignment –

the larger retro-reflector gives an easy target to hit and returns more laser light, even in turbulent air.

The power of automatic linear error compensation

Before

After

19

System advantages

kits. Laser measurement system -

angular measurement

Pitch and yaw

angular errors are

among the largest

contributory factors to

positioning inaccuracy

in machine tools

and measurement

accuracy errors on

CMMs.

Set-up

The components used in this

measurement comprise:

•Angular beam-splitter

•Angular retro-reflector

• Targets (for easy optical alignment)

For measurement set-up, the angular

beam-splitter optic is best mounted

in a fixed position on a machine, for

example, the spindle on a moving

bed machine tool or granite table on a

CMM. The retro-reflector optic is then

mounted to the moving part of the

machine, for example, the moving bed

of a machine tool or probe-head of a

CMM. The measurements are made by

monitoring the change in relative angle

between the beam-splitter optic and

the reflector optic.

X axis pitch measurement on a moving bed VMC

Angular optics 20

• Traceability –

interferometry directly benefits from the traceability of the

laser wavelength. PSD/CCD/Quad cell based systems do not.

• Accuracy –

interferometry offers more accuracy and linearity with less sensitivity to air turbulence noise, compared to PSD/CCD/Quad cell based systems.

• Easier set-up –

the remote interferometer can be fitted to specific areas of interest on a machine, without loss of axis travel. This also allows for multiple axis measurements to be made from one position, without the need to re-align the laser.

A typical plot captured when performing

an angular measurement.

21

System advantages

All the advantages of linear measurement plus . . .

Laser measurement system - straightness measurement

Straightness measurements highlight any bending component or overall misalignment in the guideways of a machine. This could be the result of wear in these guideways, an accident which may have damaged them in some way, or poor machine foundations that are causing a bowing effect

on the whole machine. Straightness error will have a direct effect on the positioning and contouring accuracy of a machine.Set-up

The components used in this measurement comprise:

•Straightness beam-splitter •Straightness reflector

For measurement set-up, the straightness reflector is mounted to a fixed position on the table even if it moves. The straightness beam-splitter should then be mounted in the spindle. There are two kits available for measuring both shorter axes (0.1 – 4.0 m) and longer axes (1 – 30 m).

X axis straightness measurement on a moving bed VMC

22

• Easier set-up –

geometry of the

patented straightness retro-reflector gives non-overlapping output and return laser beams, making alignment far easier than with other systems.

• Best long-range

performance – PSD/CCD/Quad cell

based systems can suffer from noise and accuracy problems, particularly on long range measurement.

• Convenience –

moving optics have no cables to drag or snag, for best accuracy and convenience.

• Flexibility –

the software also supports straightness measurements using digital indicators and straight edges.

This is a typical plot captured when

performing a straightness measurement.

When measuring vertical straightness in a horizontal axis, or straightness in a vertical axis of a machine, a straightness accessory kit is required for set-up.

Straightness accessory kit

23

System advantages

Laser measurement system - squareness measurement

Squareness measurement determines the out-of-squareness of two nominally orthogonal axes, by comparing their straightness values.

Squareness errors could be the result of wear in machine guideways, an accident which may have caused damage, poor machine foundations or misaligned home

position sensors on gantry machines. Squareness error will have a direct effect on the positioning accuracy and contouring

ability of a machine.

X-Z axis squareness measurement on a VMC

Optical square

Set-up

The specific component required for this measurement is:

• Optical square and bracket.

In addition to the optical square,

straightness optics and a straightness accessory kit are also required for set-up (see opposite). Other set-up accessories may also be required, depending on what axes are being measured and the configuration of the machine.

24

• Easier set-up –

geometry of the

patented straightness retro-reflector gives non-overlapping output and return laser beams, making alignment far easier than with other systems.

• Best accura cy –

the optical square provides better

accuracy than other systems due to the premium grade optics used(± 0.5 arc sec).

• Flexibility –

the software also supports squareness measurements using digital indicators and square.

This is a typical plot captured when performing a squareness measurement.

Straightness optics

Straightness accessory kit

25

System advantages

Laser measurement system - flatness measurement

Set-up

The specific components used in this measurement comprise:

• Base (50 mm)• Base (100 mm)• Base (150 mm)• Flatness mirrors

Flatness mirrors and bases

Angular optics

26

Before making any measurements, a ‘map’ of the measurement lines should be marked out on the surface. The length of each line should be an integer multiple of the foot-spacing base selected. There are two standard methods of conducting flatness measurements:

a) Moody method – in which measurement is restricted to eight prescribed lines.b) Grid method – in which any number of lines may be taken in two orthogonal directions across the surface.

These are the typical plots obtained from

a flatness measurement. The top graph shows a Moody plot type whilst the bottom shows a typical Grid plot type.

27

System advantages

• Reduced thermal drift –

the interferometer is remote from the warmth of the laser head.

• Traceability –

interferometry directly

benefits from the accuracy and traceability

of the laser wavelength. PSD/CCD/Quad cell based systems do not.

• Easier set-up –

the flatness mirrors are non-slip and fully adjustable for both pitch and yaw for simple, quick alignment.

• Flexibility –

the software supports flatness measurement using electronic levels. It can also support both Grid and Moody plot techniques.

• Single laser positioning –

all measurement lines can be achieved from a single laser position.

Laser measurement system - rotary measurement

Set-up

The components used in this measurement comprise:

• RX10 rotary indexer • RX10 controller/power supply

Angular measurement optics are also

required to attach to the top of the indexer. These are available separately and are shown in

the angular measurement section. Refer to page 20.

The RX10 features an extremely accurate Hirth coupling design that guarantees quality and reliability of the indexer along with the accuracy of the laser. With its built-in calibration routine, centring and other set-up inaccuracies are easily eliminated. The system will operate horizontally, vertically or even upside-down for easy calibration of different orientations of rotary axis.

28

Laser measurement system Dynamic measurement

The dynamic

measurement capability of Renishaw’s laser system adds a new dimension of flexibility and power. In addition to the traditional static tests it enables

dynamic measurement of the motion characteristics of

machines and motion systems to be made. Only specialised equipment can

normally pinpoint such characteristics. This greatly extends the capability of the laser system and makes it an essential tool in machine condition monitoring programmes. This software can be used to evaluate acceleration, vibration, velocity and servo control performance. This is extremely useful for assessing the performance of many different types of motion systems used in industry (not just CMMs and machine tools). Examples of other machines that can benefit from dynamic measurement include:

• Robotic pick and place machines • Surface mount machines • PCB drilling/routing machines • PCB printing machines • Optical stages • Printing presses

• Hydraulic and pneumatic systems • Reciprocating and positioning systems

This measurement capability is supplied as part of the standard Laser10 software package and requires no additional hardware other than the optics for the specific

measurement being performed.

(photo courtesy of Danaher Precision Systems)

X-Y stage.

These dynamic measurements allow

certain machine error characteristics to be highlighted and quantified. For ex ample:

• Pre-load and hysteresis of

ballscrew and nut mechanisms

• Positional stability and encoder performance

• Resonance characterisation of drive motors, spindles and other systems

• Feedrate accuracy, stability and interpolation accuracy

Control-loop optimisation

Vibration analysis

Velocity against time

Acceleration against time

Servo response analysis

System advantages

• Powerful vibration analysis –

integrated FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)

routines give a detailed frequency spectrum

enabling identification of

vibrations and pinpointing their source.

• Optics versatility –

the software supports dynamic data capture

and analysis using linear, angular

or straightness optics.

• High capability –

using a single frequency laser system

provides true nanometre resolution at

feedrates up to 1 m/s, with 5000 Hz sample

rate and no acceleration limit.

• Flexibility –

data can be taken in response to internal

timebases, or in synchronisation with

external triggers at rates up to 4000 Hz.

Laser measurement system - system accessories

LS350 beam steerer

This unique patented optic provides easy angular adjustment of the laser beam in both horizontal and vertical planes, making laser alignment a simple one step process. The beam steerer speeds up linear, angular and straightness measurements, whether in-line or at 90°. The optic is also compatible with the linear/angular combination kit and swivel/fixed turning mirrors. Clamping screws allow the beam steerer to be easily attached to measurement optics.

Swivel mirror

This mirror can be used as an alignment aid for ANSI B5.54 diagonal measurements. It is also useful when measuring slant-bed lathes. Clamping screws allow the mirror to be easily attached to measurement optics.

Optics accessories

Tripod

Compact tripod

This tripod can be supplied with a small carrying case, which is both rugged and

lightweight.

Optics mounting kit

This kit provides the essential elements required to mount the Renishaw optics to a machine. Optics can be easily

interchanged without the need to re-align the laser. It comes with hard anodised aluminium mounting blocks, stainless steel pillars and bases for the optimum combination of

portability and durability. They also incorporate M8 threads for attachment to standard magnetic bases or Renishaw’s CMM probe heads.

Fixed turning mirror

This mirror reflects the laser beam through 90o . Like the swivel mirror, it can be attached to the measurement optics to aid optical set-up and is used primarily when there is restricted access to the required axis of measurement.

32

Note: the mounting stage for the tripod is stored in the Supercase (see opposite).

Cases

Portability of laser measurement systems

is extremely important. This is especially true for mobile calibration companies or organisations based in a number of different geographical locations. Renishaw’s laser system has been designed with this in mind and comes with a range of carrying cases to

complement the size of system.

Supercase kit

This case is capable of housing the comprehensive range of optics and equipment of the laser system. This includes ML10 laser head, EC10 compensation unit and all optics kits, sensors, cables and the tripod stage. It is extremely durable, with built-in dust and pressure seals, giving the best protection to the system. It comes with an accompanying cart, which attaches directly to the case, and padlock for added security. The compact tripod can also be carried with the case on the cart to provide easy portability of the complete system.Small carrying case

This case is designed to hold either an ML10

laser head or EC10 compensation unit along

with environmental sensors.

Large carrying case

This case can house an ML10 laser head,

EC10 compensation unit and sensors,

cables, linear optics, angular optics and

flatness kit

Optics carrying case

This carrying case can hold the straightness

and squareness optics and their

associated accessories..

Supercase kit

Data capture accessories

Hand held switch

This enables remote datuming of the laser and manual data capture. It is ideal in applications where

the machine’s

controller is far

from the point

of test. It has a

built-in delay to

prevent accidental

datuming and

comes with

10 metres of cable which may be extended in 5 metre increments, if necessary.TB10 quadrature trigger box

This device monitors the position feedback signals between a machine’s encoders

and its controller and feeds trigger signals

to the Renishaw laser system. This allows synchronisation of data capture from the

ML10 laser head to encoder position

or movement.

It is primarily used in applications such as

‘on-the-fly data capture’ or for monitoring encoder errors, so a machine can be driven along an axis without stopping to collect

data for position, angle, straightness etc. This mains-powered unit works with RS422 quadrature or analogue current loop encoders and triggers the laser measurement at regular user-defined intervals.

Case and cart

33

DX10 interface kit (USB)

The DX10 replaces the PCM20 (PCMCIA) card as the standard interface offered for ML10 and EC10 to PC communications. It is equally suitable for laptop and desktop PCs. The DX10 is a compact and reliable high speed USB communications device, transmitting high resolution data at 5 kHz directly to Laser10 and new QuickView™ software.*

The DX10 is compatible with Windows® XP , including SP1 & SP2, but is not compatible with earlier versions of Windows operating system.

The DX10 interface kit (USB) includes; • DX10 interface (USB) • 3 metre USB cable

• DX10 driver installation CD-ROM

Dual axis measurement

In some installations, one axis is controlled by two drives and two feedback systems (eg “SPAR MILL ” and large dual beam type CMMs). In this instance, a second laser, optics and DX10, coupled with dual axis software, provides the capability to automatically capture data of parallel axes simultaneously.

Dual axis measurement software is included

as standard with Laser10 software.

Laser measurement system - system interfacing

Laser interfaces

PCM20

For use on notebook PCs where USB and / or Windows® XP is not available the PCM20 is a PCMCIA PC Card (type II) interface, which supports data capture at 5 kHz, at feedrates of 1 m/sec, whilst still maintaining true nanometre resolution.

LX10: interfacing with HP5528 software †

The LX10 takes ML10 and EC10 signals and outputs these in HP5528 signal format, with no loss of resolution or accuracy. This allows HP users to upgrade to the benefits of ML10 laser system ownership without having to modify existing custom software written for HP5528 input.

(NB. Dynamic mode not supported via LX10).

34

Typical dual axis set-up

LX10

PCM20 Interface

* For users who want to interface with 3rd party custom software then a software developer’s kit (SDK) is available for use with DX10.

The SDK is COM based and developed for use with VB6, C++ and C#. Please ask for further details. †

LX10 for HP5528 emulation.

Instrument interfaces Instrument interfaces give you the capability of displaying, recording and analysing your data, using Renishaw’s calibration software.

•Access Renishaw’s powerful suite of software* for angle,straightness and flatness data capture when using electronic levels or digital indicators.

•Analyse data to national and international standards.

•Unified presentation of calibration graphs, whatever the measurement technique.•Offers a consistent user interface.•Single location for data storage, retrieval and back-up.

•Increase your choice of measurement instruments, allowing your preferred method to be assigned to each measurement.

* Excludes dynamic.Digital indicator interface

This interface accepts data from both the Mahr-Federal Product’s µMAXµM and Mitutoyo’s Digimatic digital indicators. Output data from the indicator through a specially developed interface, is automatically converted into a format which can be used by Renishaw’s calibration software (included with Laser10). The serial adaptor cable is available as a separate item.

What can you measure?

• Axis straightness – using a digital indicator and straight edge.

•Axes squareness – using a digital indicator and square.

• Axis roll – using two digital indicators, straight edge and dual axis software.

• Linear repeatability, backlash and drift tests – using a digital indicator.

The most powerful tool in your toolbox

Process control and improvement is the key to raising quality and productivity, so increasing your company’s competitiveness.

The quality of every component produced by a CNC machine tool is highly dependent on the machine’s performance. Problems with a machine invariably result in components being scrapped and machine down time.

Many inspection procedures take place after the component is produced. This is too late. To avoid scrap it is better to check the machine before you cut any metal.

The QC10 ballbar provides a quick, powerful and accurate check on machine performance and is easy to use, saving you;

• Time • Money • Waste Accurate and powerful

With sensor accuracy of ±0.5 µm and powerful diagnostic software, the QC10

can identify changes in machine geometry, play and dynamic parameters affecting

your machine’s accuracy as well as giving an overall indication of machine contouring accuracy (circularity).

All QC10 ballbars are laser calibrated before dispatch and an optional “zero expansion” calibrator enables absolute radius measurement. Ballbar tests are recognised by ISO, ASME and JIS standards.

What’s just as important is that the easy to use software, combined with a simple, fast test, encourages frequent routine testing.

T est templates ensure test consistency

and repeatability, which are essential for

QA compliance and historic trend analysis.

With a QC10 ballbar, you can take control of your processes with the right test at the right time.

36

* Longer extension bars available on special request

QC10 ballbar system

** For 100 mm radius test

*** For 50 mm radius test

QC10 ballbar

37

3. Analyse

• The machine performs two

consecutive circular arcs. One test is in the clockwise direction, the other in the counter-clockwise direction.

• The QC10 ballbar accurately

measures any deviations in radius during the test.

• QC10 ballbar data is sent

directly to a PC via a standard RS232 cable*.

• Renishaw’s Ballbar 5

software analyses the data in accordance with ISO 230-4, ANSI B5.54, B5.57, or JIS B6194 standards.

1. Set-up

2. Capture

• Powerful software analysis

enables diagnosis of specific machine errors.

• Each error is ranked

according to its significance to overall machine accuracy.

• Overall machine performance

is graded with a value of circularity.

4. Diagnose

Set-up is quick and easy.•

The QC10 ballbar is

mounted between two repeatable magnetic joints.

A simple G02 and G03

command program is used for the test.

5. Fix

6. Report • Pinpointing specific

machine faults enables efficient, targeted machine maintenance,

minimising downtime.

• T he on-line manual

explains the possible causes of machine error and offers advice on how best to fix them.

• Professional reports can be

generated for easy future reference.

• Implement predictive

maintenance programs by regularly tracking a machine’s performance.

* Optional USB adaptor available.

The 6 steps to machine confidence

Whatever you do

QC10 ballbars are used:-

•at major machine tool OEMs

•at end users

•by service companies

•in multinational companies

•in small family operations

•in research departments

•on factory floors

•on customers’ sites

•worldwide

The widespread use of the QC10 ballbar is testimony to its ability to meet these varied needs effectively.

It’s not just a tool for the quality manager. If you work

in engineering, customer support, production and even purchasing or sales and marketing, the QC10 ballbar can help

you do your job better!

QC10 and laser calibrations

If you use a laser system, a Renishaw QC10 ballbar is the ideal companion. Apart from regular checks between major calibrations (see page 9), its ease of use means that it makes sense to carry out a ballbar check before any investigation with a laser. It can quickly confirm that there is an error and

indicate where to look, avoiding unnecessary laser checks.

A proven track record

In production for over 13 years, there are

thousands of QC10 ballbars in use worldwide. Established as standard test equipment

by many OEMs, it is used widely for final

machine test and sign-off as well as by field

service departments. The Renishaw QC10

ballbar outsells all competing products, and is

the standard by which others are judged. With

regular system improvements and Renishaw’s commitment to customer support you really

can’t afford to be without a QC10.Most users find that the purchase cost can be readily offset against the savings of reduced downtime, less scrap and improved and verifiable maintenance. With the new Ballbar 5 HPS software, which greatly increases the power of your ballbar testing, included as standard in most kits there is no better time to start using QC10.

QC10 kit including optional Zerodur zero

expansion calibrator.

Applications for everybody

QC10 kit

The QC10 is supplied as a complete kit in a single highly

portable case.

The kit includes:-

•Ballbar and PC interface

•Tool and machine mounts

•Ballbar extension rods

•Ballbar 5 software (including manual)

•Zerodur calibrator

All that is needed to start testing is a suitable PC.

38

Ballbar accessories

360° lathe adaptor kit Small circle accessory kit

VTL adaptor Extend your ballbar’s capability. The QC10 ballbar is an extremely versatile tool designed to be used on a large

variety of machines. The standard system can be used to test 3-axis CNC machines such as horizontal and

vertical machining centres, etc. With the addition of other accessories detailed below, the QC10 ballbar can also be used to test a much wider range of machine types.For 2-axis CNC applications, a special retractable centre mount, the VTL adapto r, is used. This enables typical 2-axis machines (such as pick and place machines, laser cutting machines and vertical turning lathes etc.) to benefit from QC10 ballbar diagnosis.

The 360° lathe adaptor enables the QC10 ballbar to be used on a wide range of CNC lathes. As with machining centres, it allows a full diagnosis of lathe capabilities to be performed. It can also be used for 2-axis testing on machining centres.T o address smaller machines, the small circle accessory kit allows testing of CNC machines with shorter axis travel. Additionally, it can help to give an enhanced analysis of servo control systems on most types of machines.

39

360° lathe adaptor kit in use

Ballbar measurement software

猜你喜欢

最安全有效的减肥药

最安全有效的减肥药

编辑:小徐

现在的减肥药真的是真假难分,在选择减肥药的同时也应该更加小心,减肥药多种多样,那么如何才能选择最安全有效的减肥药,也成了很多小仙女的内心疑问,下面就跟着欧美一级不卡免费看小编一起看一下,如何选择最安全有效的减肥药。 最安全有效的减肥药选购方法 1、首先需要观察产品的外包装,在包装中可以看到其配方是不是含有激素,含有激素的减肥药对身体的内..

吃减肥药失眠

吃减肥药失眠

编辑:小徐

随着现在流行以瘦为美,很多人会不顾身体的健康选择减肥药,达到快速减肥瘦身的效果,但是很多减肥药都是有副作用的,副作用比较轻的就是失眠现象,那么吃减肥药出现失眠是怎么回事儿?如果出现失眠后,我们应该怎样缓解? 吃减肥药失眠是怎么回事 减肥药中富含安非他命,所以减肥药服用了太多会有失眠现象,服用减肥药期间,身体会逐渐出现抗药性,身..

最新文章