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2010考研英语二真题及答案

SectionIUseofEnglish

Directions:

Readthefollowingpassage.ForeachnumberedblanktherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.ChoosethebestoneandmarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEETl.(10points)

TheoutbreakofswinefluthatwasfirstdetectedinMexicowasdeclaredaglobalepidemiconJune11,2009.Itisthefirstworldwideepidemic_____1_____bytheWorldHealthOrganizationin41years.

Theheightenedalert_____2_____anemergencymeetingwithfluexpertsinGenevathatconvenedafterasharpriseincasesinAustralia,andrising_____3_____inBritain,Japan,Chileandelsewhere.

Buttheepidemicis"_____4_____"inseverity,accordingtoMargaretChan,theorganization'sdirectorgeneral,_____5_____theoverwhelmingmajorityofpatientsexperiencingonlymildsymptomsandafullrecovery,ofteninthe_____6_____ofanymedicaltreatment.

Theoutbreakcametoglobal_____7_____inlateApril2009,whenMexicanauthoritiesnoticedanunusuallylargenumberofhospitalizationsanddeaths_____8_____healthyadults.AsmuchofMexicoCityshutdownattheheightofapanic,casesbeganto_____9_____inNewYorkCity,thesouthwesternUnitedStatesandaroundtheworld.

IntheUnitedStates,newcasesseemedtofade_____10_____warmerweatherarrived.ButinlateSeptember2009,officialsreportedtherewas_____11_____fluactivityinalmosteverystateandthatvirtuallyallthe_____12_____testedarethenewswineflu,alsoknownas(A)H1N1,notseasonalflu.IntheU.S.,ithas_____13_____morethanonemillionpeople,andcausedmorethan600deathsandmorethan6,000hospitalizations.

Federalhealthofficials_____14_____Tamifluforchildrenfromthenationalstockpileandbegan_____15_____ordersfromthestatesforthenewswinefluvaccine.Thenewvaccine,whichisdifferentfromtheannualfluvaccine,is____16_____aheadofexpectations.MorethanthreemilliondosesweretobemadeavailableinearlyOctober2009,thoughmostofthose_____17_____doseswereoftheFluMistnasalspraytype,whichisnot_____18_____forpregnantwomen,peopleover50orthosewithbreathingdifficulties,heartdiseaseorseveralother_____19_____.Butitwasstillpossibletovaccinatepeopleinotherhigh-riskgroup:healthcareworkers,people_____20_____infantsandhealthyyoungpeople.

1[A]criticized[B]appointed[C]commented[D]designated

2[A]proceeded[B]activated[C]followed[D]prompted

3[A]digits[B]numbers[C]amounts[D]sums

4[A]moderate[B]normal[C]unusual[D]extreme

5[A]with[B]in[C]from[D]by

6[A]progress[B]absence[C]presence[D]favor

7[A]reality[B]phenomenon[C]concept[D]notice

8.[A]over[B]for[C]among[D]to

9[A]stayup[B]cropup[C]fillup[D]coverup

10[A]as[B]if[C]unless[D]until

11[A]excessive[B]enormous[C]significant[D]magnificent

12[A]categories[B]examples[C]patterns[D]samples

13[A]imparted[B]immerse[C]injected[D]infected

14[A]released[B]relayed[C]relieved[D]remained

15[A]placing[B]delivering[C]taking[D]giving

16[A]feasible[B]available[C]reliable[D]applicable

17[A]prevalent[B]principal[C]innovative[D]initial

18[A]presented[B]restricted[C]recommended[D]introduced

19[A]problems[B]issues[C]agonies[D]sufferings

20[A]involvedin[B]caringfor[C]concernedwith[D]wardingoff

SectionⅡReadingcomprehension

PartA  

Text1

  Thelongestbullruninacenturyofart-markethistoryendedonadramaticnotewithasaleof56worksbyDamienHirst,“BeautifulInsideMyHeadForever”,atSotheby’sinLondononSeptember15th2008.Allbuttwopiecessold,fetchingmorethan£70m,arecordforasalebyasingleartist.Itwasalastvictory.Astheauctioneercalledoutbids,inNewYorkoneoftheoldestbanksonWallStreet,LehmanBrothers,filedforbankruptcy.

 Theworldartmarkethadalreadybeenlosingmomentumforawhileafterrisingbewilderinglysince2003.Atitspeakin2007itwasworthsomebillion,reckonsClareMcAndrew,founderofArtsEconomics,aresearchfirm—doublethefigurefiveyearsearlier.Sincethenitmayhavecomedowntobillion.Butthemarketgeneratesinterestfarbeyonditssizebecauseitbringstogethergreatwealth,enormousegos,greed,passionandcontroversyinawaymatchedbyfewotherindustries.

  IntheweeksandmonthsthatfollowedMrHirst’ssale,spendingofanysortbecamedeeplyunfashionable,especiallyinNewYork,wherethebail-outofthebankscoincidedwiththelossofthousandsofjobsandthefinancialdemiseofmanyart-buyinginvestors.Intheartworldthatmeantcollectorsstayedawayfromgalleriesandsalerooms.Salesofcontemporaryartfellbytwo-thirds,andinthemostoverheatedsector—forChinesecontemporaryart—theyweredownbynearly90%intheyeartoNovember2008.Withinweekstheworld’stwobiggestauctionhouses,Sotheby’sandChristie’s,hadtopayoutnearly0minguaranteestoclientswhohadplacedworksforsalewiththem.

  ThecurrentdownturnintheartmarketistheworstsincetheJapanesestoppedbuyingImpressionistsattheendof1989,amovethatstartedthemostseriouscontractioninthemarketsincetheSecondWorldWar.Thistimeexpertsreckonthatpricesareabout40%downontheirpeakonaverage,thoughsomehavebeenfarmorefluctuant.ButEdwardDolman,Christie’schiefexecutive,says:“I’mprettyconfidentwe’reatthebottom.”

Whatmakesthisslumpdifferentfromthelast,hesays,isthattherearestillbuyersinthemarket,whereasintheearly1990s,wheninterestrateswerehigh,therewasnodemandeventhoughmanycollectorswantedtosell.Christie’srevenuesinthefirsthalfof2009werestillhigherthaninthefirsthalfof2006.Almosteveryonewhowasinterviewedforthisspecialreportsaidthatthebiggestproblematthemomentisnotalackofdemandbutalackofgoodworktosell.ThethreeDs—death,debtanddivorce—stilldeliverworksofarttothemarket.Butanyonewhodoesnothavetoselliskeepingaway,waitingforconfidencetoreturn.

  21.Inthefirstparagraph,DamienHirst'ssalewasreferredtoas“alastvictory”because____.

  A.theartmarkethadwitnessedasuccessionofvictories

  B.theauctioneerfinallygotthetwopiecesatthehighestbids

  C.BeautifulInsideMyHeadForeverwonoverallmasterpieces

D.itwassuccessfullymadejustbeforetheworldfinancialcrisis

  22.Bysaying“spendingofanysortbecamedeeplyunfashionable”(Line1-2,Para.3),theauthorsuggeststhat_____.

  A.collectorswerenolongeractivelyinvolvedinart-marketauctions

  B.peoplestoppedeverykindofspendingandstayedawayfromgalleries

  C.artcollectionasafashionhadlostitsappealtoagreatextent

D.worksofartingeneralhadgoneoutoffashionsotheywerenotworthbuying

  23.WhichofthefollowingstatementsisNOTtrue?

  A.Salesofcontemporaryartfelldramaticallyfrom2007to2008.

  B.Theartmarketsurpassedmanyotherindustriesinmomentum.

  C.Themarketgenerallywentdownwardinvariousways.

D.Someartdealerswereawaitingbetterchancestocome.

  24.ThethreeDsmentionedinthelastparagraphare____

  A.auctionhouses'favorites

  B.contemporarytrends

  C.factorspromotingartworkcirculation

  D.stylesrepresentingimpressionists

25.Themostappropriatetitleforthistextcouldbe___

  A.FluctuationofArtPrices

  B.Up-to-dateArtAuctions

  C.ArtMarketinDecline

  D.ShiftedInterestinArts

Text2

  IwasaddressingasmallgatheringinasuburbanVirginialivingroom—awomen'sgroupthathadinvitedmentojointhem.Throughouttheeveningonemanhadbeenparticularlytalkative,frequentlyofferingideasandanecdotes,whilehiswifesatsilentlybesidehimonthecouch.TowardtheendoftheeveningIcommentedthatwomenfrequentlycomplainthattheirhusbandsdon'ttalktothem.Thismanquicklynoddedinagreement.Hegesturedtowardhiswifeandsaid,"She'sthetalkerinourfamily."Theroomburstintolaughter;themanlookedpuzzledandhurt."It'strue,"heexplained."WhenIcomehomefromwork,Ihavenothingtosay.Ifshedidn'tkeeptheconversationgoing,we'dspendthewholeeveninginsilence."

  ThisepisodecrystallizestheironythatalthoughAmericanmentendtotalkmorethanwomeninpublicsituations,theyoftentalklessathome.Andthispatterniswreakinghavocwithmarriage.

  ThepatternwasobservedbypoliticalscientistAndrewHackerinthelate1970s.SociologistCatherineKohlerRiessmanreportsinhernewbook"DivorceTalk"thatmostofthewomensheinterviewed—butonlyafewofthemen—gavelackofcommunicationasthereasonfortheirdivorces.Giventhecurrentdivorcerateofnearly50percent,thatamountstomillionsofcasesintheUnitedStateseveryyear—avirtualepidemicoffailedconversation.

  Inmyownresearchcomplaintsfromwomenabouttheirhusbandsmostoftenfocusednotontangibleinequitiessuchashavinggivenupthechanceforacareertoaccompanyahusbandtohisordoingfarmorethantheirshareofdailylife-supportworklikecleaning,cooking,socialarrangementsanderrands.Insteadtheyfocusedoncommunication:"Hedoesn'tlistentome.""Hedoesn'ttalktome."IfoundasHackerobservedyearsbeforethatmostwiveswanttheirhusbandstobefirstandforemostconversationalpartnersbutfewhusbandssharethisexpectationoftheirwives.

  Inshorttheimagethatbestrepresentsthecurrentcrisisisthestereotypicalcartoonsceneofamansittingatthebreakfasttablewithanewspaperheldupinfrontofhisface,whileawomanglaresatthebackofit,wantingtotalk.

  26.Whatismostwives'mainexpectationoftheirhusbands?

  A.Talkingtothem.

  B.Trustingthem.

  C.Supportingtheircareers.

  D.Sharinghousework.

  27.Judgingfromthecontext,thephrase“wreakinghavoc”(Line3,Para.2)mostprobablymeans___.

  A.generatingmotivation.

  B.exertinginfluence

  C.causingdamage

  D.creatingpressure

  28.AllofthefollowingaretrueEXCEPT_______

  A.mentendtotalkmoreinpublicthanwomen

  B.nearly50percentofrecentdivorcesarecausedbyfailedconversation

  C.womenattachmuchimportancetocommunicationbetweencouples

  D.afemaletendstobemoretalkativeathomethanherspouse

  29.Whichofthefollowingcanbestsummarizethemainideaofthistext?

  A.Themoraldecayingdeservesmoreresearchbysociologists.

  B.Marriagebreak-upstemsfromsexinequalities.

  C.Husbandandwifehavedifferentexpectationsfromtheirmarriage.

  D.Conversationalpatternsbetweenmanandwifearedifferent.

  30.Inthefollowingpartimmediatelyafterthistext,theauthorwillmostprobablyfocus on______

  A.avividaccountofthenewbookDivorceTalk

  B.adetaileddescriptionofthestereotypicalcartoon

  C.otherpossiblereasonsforahighdivorcerateintheU.S.

  D.abriefintroductiontothepoliticalscientistAndrewHacker

Text3

  Overthepastdecade,manycompanieshadperfectedtheartofcreatingautomaticbehaviors—habits—amongconsumers.Thesehabitshavehelpedcompaniesearnbillionsofdollarswhencustomerseatsnacks,applylotionsandwipecountersalmostwithoutthinking,ofteninresponsetoacarefullydesignedsetofdailycues.

  “Therearefundamentalpublichealthproblems,likedirtyhandsinsteadofasoaphabit,thatremainkillersonlybecausewecan’tfigureouthowtochangepeople’shabits,”Dr.Curtissaid.“Wewantedtolearnfromprivateindustryhowtocreatenewbehaviorsthathappenautomatically.”

  ThecompaniesthatDr.Curtisturnedto—Procter&Gamble,Colgate-PalmoliveandUnilever—hadinvestedhundredsofmillionsofdollarsfindingthesubtlecuesinconsumers’livesthatcorporationscouldusetointroducenewroutines.

Ifyoulookhardenough,you’llfindthatmanyoftheproductsweuseeveryday—chewinggums,skinmoisturizers,disinfectingwipes,airfresheners,waterpurifiers,healthsnacks,antiperspirants,colognes,teethwhiteners,fabricsofteners,vitamins—areresultsofmanufacturedhabits.Acenturyago,fewpeopleregularlybrushedtheirteethmultipletimesaday.Today,becauseofcannyadvertisingandpublichealthcampaigns,manyAmericanshabituallygivetheirpearlywhitesacavity-preventingscrubtwiceaday,oftenwithColgate,Crestoroneoftheotherbrands.

Afewdecadesago,manypeopledidn’tdrinkwateroutsideofameal.Thenbeveragecompaniesstartedbottlingtheproductionoffar-offsprings,andnowofficeworkersunthinkinglysipbottledwateralldaylong.Chewinggum,onceboughtprimarilybyadolescentboys,isnowfeaturedincommercialsasabreathfreshenerandteethcleanserforuseafterameal.Skinmoisturizersareadvertisedaspartofmorningbeautyrituals,slippedinbetweenhairbrushingandputtingonmakeup.

  “Ourproductssucceedwhentheybecomepartofdailyorweeklypatterns,”saidCarolBerning,aconsumerpsychologistwhorecentlyretiredfromProcter&Gamble,thecompanythatsoldbillionofTide,Crestandotherproductslastyear.“Creatingpositivehabitsisahugepartofimprovingourconsumers’lives,andit’sessentialtomakingnewproductscommerciallyviable.”

  Throughexperimentsandobservation,socialscientistslikeDr.Berninghavelearnedthatthereispowerintyingcertainbehaviorstohabitualcuesthroughrelentlessadvertising.Asthisnewscienceofhabithasemerged,controversieshaveeruptedwhenthetacticshavebeenusedtosellquestionablebeautycreamsorunhealthyfoods.

  31.AccordingtoDr.Curtis,habitslikehandwashingwithsoap________.

  [A]shouldbefurthercultivated

  [B]shouldbechangedgradually

  [C]aredeeplyrootedinhistory

  [D]arebasicallyprivateconcerns

  32.Bottledwater,chewinggunandskinmoisturizersarementionedinParagraph5soasto____

  [A]revealtheirimpactonpeople’shabits

  [B]showtheurgentneedofdailynecessities

  [C]indicatetheireffectonpeople’sbuyingpower

  [D]manifestthesignificantroleofgoodhabits

  33.WhichofthefollowingdoesNOTbelongtoproductsthathelpcreatepeople’shabits?

  [A]Tide

  [B]Crest

  [C]Colgate

  [D]Unilever

  34.Fromthetextweknowthatsomeofconsumer’shabitsaredevelopeddueto_____

  [A]perfectedartofproducts

  [B]automaticbehaviorcreation

  [C]commercialpromotions

  [D]scientificexperiments

  35.Theauthor’sattitudetowardtheinfluenceofadvertisementonpeople’shabitsis____

  [A]indifferent

  [B]negative

  [C]positive

  [D]biased

Text4

  ManyAmericansregardthejurysystemasaconcreteexpressionofcrucialdemocraticvalues,includingtheprinciplesthatallcitizenswhomeetminimalqualificationsofageandliteracyareequallycompetenttoserveonjuries;thatjurorsshouldbeselectedrandomlyfromarepresentativecrosssectionofthecommunity;thatnocitizenshouldbedeniedtherighttoserveonajuryonaccountofrace,religion,sex,ornationalorigin;thatdefendantsareentitledtotrialbytheirpeers;andthatverdictsshouldrepresenttheconscienceofthecommunityandnotjusttheletterofthelaw.Thejuryisalsosaidtobethebestsurvivingexampleofdirectratherthanrepresentativedemocracy.Inadirectdemocracy,citizenstaketurnsgoverningthemselves,ratherthanelectingrepresentativestogovernforthem.

  Butasrecentlyasin1986,juryselectionproceduresconflictedwiththesedemocraticideals.Insomestates,forexample,jurydutywaslimitedtopersonsofsupposedlysuperiorintelligence,education,andmoralcharacter.AlthoughtheSupremeCourtoftheUnitedStateshadprohibitedintentionalracialdiscriminationinjuryselectionasearlyasthe1880caseofStrauderv.WestVirginia,thepracticeofselectingso-calledeliteorblue-ribbonjuriesprovidedaconvenientwayaroundthisandotherantidiscriminationlaws.

  Thesystemalsofailedtoregularlyincludewomenonjuriesuntilthemid-20thcentury.AlthoughwomenfirstservedonstatejuriesinUtahin1898,itwasnotuntilthe1940sthatamajorityofstatesmadewomeneligibleforjuryduty.Eventhenseveralstatesautomaticallyexemptedwomenfromjurydutyunlesstheypersonallyaskedtohavetheirnamesincludedonthejurylist.Thispracticewasjustifiedbytheclaimthatwomenwereneededathome,anditkeptjuriesunrepresentativeofwomenthroughthe1960s.

  In1968,theCongressoftheUnitedStatespassedtheJurySelectionandServiceAct,usheringinaneweraofdemocraticreformsforthejury.Thislawabolishedspecialeducationalrequirementsforfederaljurorsandrequiredthemtobeselectedatrandomfromacrosssectionoftheentirecommunity.Inthelandmark1975decisionTaylorvs.Louisiana,theSupremeCourtextendedtherequirementthatjuriesberepresentativeofallpartsofthecommunitytothestatelevel.TheTaylordecisionalsodeclaredsexdiscriminationinjuryselectiontobeunconstitutionalandorderedstatestousethesameproceduresforselectingmaleandfemalejurors.

  36.FromtheprinciplesoftheUSjurysystem,welearnthat______

  [A]bothliberateandilliteratepeoplecanserveonjuries

[B]defendantsareimmunefromtrialbytheirpeers

  [C]noagelimitshouldbeimposedforjuryservice

  [D]judgmentshouldconsidertheopinionofthepublic

  37.Thepracticeofselectingso-calledelitejurorspriorto1968showed_____

  [A]theinadequacyofantidiscriminationlaws

  [B]theprevalentdiscriminationagainstcertainraces

  [C]theconflictingidealsinjuryselectionprocedures

  [D]thearrogancecommonamongtheSupremeCourtjustices

38.Eveninthe1960s,womenwereseldomonthejurylistinsomestatesbecause_____

  [A]theywereautomaticallybannedbystatelaws

  [B]theyfellfarshortoftherequiredqualifications

  [C]theyweresupposedtoperformdomesticduties

[D]theytendedtoevadepublicengagement

  39.AftertheJurySelectionandServiceActwaspassed.___

  [A]sexdiscriminationinjuryselectionwasunconstitutionalandhadtobeabolished

  [B]educationalrequirementsbecamelessrigidintheselectionoffederaljurors

  [C]jurorsatthestateleveloughttoberepresentativeoftheentirecommunity

  [D]statesoughttoconformtothefederalcourtinreformingthejurysystem

  40.IndiscussingtheUSjurysystem,thetextcenterson_______

  [A]itsnatureandproblems

  [B]itscharacteristicsandtradition

  [C]itsproblemsandtheirsolutions

  [D]itstraditionanddevelopment

PartB根据下文判断正误

  原文:

  BOTHBoeingandAirbushavetrumpetedtheefficiencyoftheirnewestaircraft,the787andA350respectively.Theircleverdesignsandlightweightcompositescertainlymakeadifference.ButagroupofresearchersatStanfordUniversity,ledbyIlanKroo,hassuggestedthatairlinescouldtakeamorenaturalisticapproachtocuttingjet-fueluse,anditwouldnotrequirethemtobuynewaircraft.

  Theanswer,saysDrKroo,lieswithbirds.Since1914,andaseminalpaperbyaGermanresearchercalledCarlWieselsberger,scientistshaveknownthatbirdsflyinginformation—aV-shape,echelonorotherwise—expendlessenergy.Theairflowingoverabird’swingscurlsupwardsbehindthewingtips,aphenomenonknownasupwash.Otherbirdsflyingintheupwashexperiencereduceddrag,andspendlessenergypropellingthemselves.PeterLissaman,anaeronauticsexpertwhowasformerlyatCaltechandtheUniversityofSouthern

  Whenappliedtoaircraft,theprinciplesarenotsubstantiallydifferent.DrKrooandhisteammodelledwhatwouldhappenifthreepassengerjetsdepartingfromLosAngeles,SanFranciscoandLasVegasweretorendezvousoverUtah,assumeaninvertedV-formation,occasionallyswapplacessoallcouldhaveaturninthemostfavourablepositions,andproceedtoLondon.Theyfoundthattheaircraftconsumedasmuchas15%lessfuel(withaconcomitantreductionincarbon-dioxideoutput).Nitrogen-oxideemissionsduringthecruisingportionsoftheflightfellbyaroundaquarter.

  Thereare,ofcourse,kinkstobeworkedout.Oneconsiderationissafety,oratleasttheperceptionofit.Wouldpassengersfeelcomfortabletravellinginconvoy?DrKroopointsoutthattheaircraftcouldbeseparatedbyseveralnauticalmiles,andwouldnotbeintheunnervinglycosygroupingsfavouredbydisplayteamsliketheRedArrows.Apassengerpeeringoutofthewindowmightnotevenseetheotherplanes.Whethertheseparationdistancesinvolvedwouldsatisfyair-traffic-controlregulationsisanothermatter,althoughaworkinggroupattheInternationalCivilAviation.Organisationhasincludedthepossibilityofformationflyinginablueprintfornewoperationalguidelines.

  Itremainstobeseenhowweatherconditionsaffecttheairflowsthatmakeformationflightmoreefficient.Inzonesofincreasedturbulence,theplanes’wakeswilldecaymorequicklyandtheeffectwilldiminish.DrKroosaysthisisoneoftheareashisteamwillinvestigatefurther.Itmightalsobehardforairlinestoco-ordinatethedeparturetimesanddestinationsofpassengeraircraftinawaythatwouldallowthemtogainfromformationflight.Cargoaircraft,incontrast,mightbeeasiertoreschedule,asmightroutinemilitaryflights.

  Asithappens,America’sarmedforcesareonthecasealready.Earlierthisyearthecountry’sDefenceAdvancedResearchProjectsAgencyannouncedplanstopayBoeingtoinvestigateformationflight,thoughtheprogrammehasyettobegin.Therearereportsthatsomemilitaryaircraftflewinformationwhentheywerelowonfuelduringthesecondworldwar,butDrLissamansaystheyareapocryphal.“MyfatherwasanRAFpilotandmycousintheskipperofaLancasterlostoverBerlin,”headds.Soheshouldknow.

  41.FindingsoftheStanfordUniversityresearcherswillpromotethesalesofnewBoeingandAirbusaircraft.

  42.Theupwashexperiencemaysavepropellingenergyaswellasreducingresistance.

  43.Formationflightismorecomfortablebecausepassengerscannotseetheotherplanes.

  44.Therolethatweatherplaysinformationflighthasnotyetbeenclearlydefined.

45.IthasbeendocumentedthatduringWorldWarII,America’sarmedforcesoncetriedformationflighttosavefuel.

SectionⅢTranslation

46.Directions:

InthissectionthereisatextinEnglish.TranslateitintoChinese.WriteyourtranslationonANSWERSHEET2.(15points)

“Suatainability”hasbecomeapopularwordthesedays,buttoTedNing,theconceptwillalwayshavepersonalmeaning.Havingenduredapainfulperiodofunsustainabilityinhisownlifemadeitcleartohimthatsustainability-orientedvaluesmustbeexpressedthougheverydayactionandchoice。Ningrecallsspendingaconfusingyearinthelate1990ssellinginsurance.He’dbeenthoughthedot-comboomandburstand,desperateforajob,signedonwithaBoulderagency。Itdidin’tgowell.“Itwasareallyhadmovebecausethat’snotmypassion,”saysNing,whosedilemmaaboutthejobtranslated,predictably,intoalackofsales.“Iwasmiserable,IhadsomuchanxietythatIwouldwakeupinthemiddleofthenightandstareattheceiling.Ihadnomoneyandneededthejob.Everyonesaid,‘Justwait,you’lltrunthecorner,giveitsometime.’”

47.Directions:

YouhavejustcomebackfromtheU.S.asamemberofaSino-Americanculturalexchangeprogram.WritealettertoyourAmericancolleagueto

1)Expressyourthanksforhis/herwarmreception;

2)Welcomehim/hertovisitChinainduecourse。

Youshouldwriteabout100wordsonANSWERSHEET2.

Donotsignyourownnameattheendoftheletter.Use“ZhangWei”instead。

Donotwriteyouraddress.(10points)

48.Directions:

Inthissection,youareaskedtowriteanessaybasedonthefollowingchart.Inyourwriting,youshould

  1)Interpretthechartand

  2)Giveyourcomments。

  Youshouldwriteatleast150words。

  WriteyouressayononANSWERSHEET2.(15points)

2011年研究生入学考试英语二真题

SectionI UseofEnglish

Directions:Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblackandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)

"TheInternetaffordsanonymitytoitsusers—aboontoprivacyandfreedomofspeech.Butthatveryanonymityisalsobehindtheexplosionofcybercrimethathas  1  acrosstheWeb.Canprivacybepreserved  2  bringingasemblanceofsafetyandsecuritytoaworldthatseemsincreasingly  3  ?   Lastmonth,HowardSchmidt,thenation’scyberczar,offeredtheObamagovernmenta 4  tomaketheWebasaferplace—a“voluntaryidentify”systemthatwouldbethehigh-tech  5  ofaphysicalkey,fingerprintandaphotoIDcard,allrolled  6  one.Thesystemmightuseasmartidentitycard,oradigitalcredential  7  toaspecificcomputer,andwouldauthenticateusersatarangeofonlineservices.

Theideaisto  8  afederationofprivateonlineidentifysystems.Userscould  9  whichsystemtojoin,andonlyregistereduserswhoseidentitieshavebeenauthenticatedcouldnavigatethosesystems.TheapproachcontrastswithonethatwouldrequireanInternetdriver’slicense  10  bythegovernment.  GoogleandMicrosoftareamongcompaniesthatalreadyhavesign-on”systemsthatmakeitpossibleforusersto  11  justoncebutusemanydifferentservices.  12  ,theapproachwouldcreatea“walledgarden”insafe“neighborhoods”andbright“streetlights”toestablishasenseof  13  community.  Mr.Schmidtdescribeditasa“voluntaryecosystem”inwhichindividualsandorganizationscancompleteonlinetransactionswith  14  ,trustingtheidentitiesoftheinfrastructurethatthetransactionruns  15  .'"Still,theadministration’splanhas  16  privacyrightsactivists.Someapplaudtheapproach;othersareconcerned.Itseemsclearthatsuchaninitiativepushtowardwhatwould  17  bealicense”mentality.  Theplanhasalsobeengreetedwith  18  bysomeexperts,whoworrythatthe“voluntaryecosystem”wouldstillleavemuchoftheInternet  19  .Theyarguethatshouldbe  20  toregisterandidentifythemselves,indriversmustbelicensedtodriveonpublicroads.

 1.

A.swept

B.skipped

C.walked

D.ridden

2.

A.for

B.within

C.while

D.though

3.

A.careless

B.lawless

C.pointless

D.helpless

4.

A.reason

B.reminder

C.compromise

D.proposal

5.

A.information

B.interference

C.entertainment

D.equivalent

6.

A.by

B.into

C.from

D.over

7.

A.linked

B.directed

C.chained

D.compared

8.

A.dismiss

B.discover

C.create

D.improve

9.

A.recall

B.suggest

C.select

D.realize

10.

A.relcased

B.issued

C.distributed

D.delivered

11.

A.carryon

B.lingeron

C.setin

D.login

12.

A.Invain

B.Ineffect

C.Inreturn

D.Incontrast

13.

A.trusted

B.modernized

C.thriving

D.competing

14.

A.caution

B.delight

C.confidence

D.patience

15.

A.on

B.after

C.beyond

D.across

16.

A.divided

B.disappointed

C.protected

D.united

17.

A.frequestly

B.incidentally

C.occasionally

D.eventually

18.

A.skepticism

B.relerance

C.indifference

D.enthusiasm

19.

A.manageable

B.defendable

C.vulnerable

D.invisible

20.

A.invited

B.appointed

C.allowed

D.forced

SectionII  ReadingComprehension

PartA

Directions:

Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsaftereachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)

Text 1

RuthSimmonsjoinedGoldmanSachs’sboardasanoutsidedirectorinJanuary2000:ayearlatershebecamepresidentofBrownUniversity.Fortherestofthedecadesheapparentlymanagedbothroleswithoutattractingmucheroticism.Butbytheendof2009Ms.SimmonswasunderfireforhavingsatonGoldman’scompensationcommittee;howcouldshehaveletthoseenormousbonuspayoutspassunremarked?ByFebruarythenextyearMs.Simmonshadlefttheboard.Thepositionwasjusttakinguptoomuchtime,shesaid.

Outsidedirectorsaresupposedtoserveashelpful,yetlessbiased,advisersonafirm’sboard.Havingmadetheirwealthandtheirreputationselsewhere,theypresumablyhaveenoughindependencetodisagreewiththechiefexecutive’sproposals.Ifthesky,andthesharepriceisfalling,outsidedirectorsshouldbeabletogiveadvicebasedonhavingweatheredtheirowncrises.

TheresearchersfromOhioUniversityusedadatabasehatcoveredmorethan10,000firmsandmorethan64,000differentdirectorsbetween1989and2004.Thentheysimplycheckedwhichdirectorsstayedfromoneproxystatementtothenext.Themostlikelyreasonfordepartingaboardwasage,sotheresearchersconcentratedonthose“surprise”disappearancesbydirectorsundertheageof70.Theyfountthatafterasurprisedeparture,theprobabilitythatthecompanywillsubsequentlyhavetorestateearningsincreasedbynearly20%.Thelikelihoodofbeingnamedinafederalclass-actionlawsuitalsoincreases,andthestockislikelytoperformworse.Theeffecttendedtobelargerforlargerfirms.Althoughacorrelationbetweenthemleavingandsubsequentbadperformanceatthefirmissuggestive,itdoesnotmeanthatsuchdirectorsarealwaysjumpingoffasinkingship.Oftenthey“tradeup.”Leavingriskier,smallerfirmsforlargerandmorestablefirms.

Buttheresearchersbelievethatoutsidedirectorshaveaneasiertimeofavoidingablowtotheirreputationsiftheyleaveafirmbeforebadnewsbreaks,evenifareviewofhistoryshowstheywereontheboardatthetimeanywrongdoingoccurred.Firmswhowanttokeeptheiroutsidedirectorsthroughtoughtimesmayhavetocreateincentives.OtherwiseoutsidedirectorswillfollowtheexampleofMs.Simmons,onceagainverypopularoncampus.

21.AccordingtoParagraph1,Ms.Simmonswascriticizedfor        .

[A]gainingexcessiveprofits

[B]failingtofulfillherduty

[C]refusingtomakecompromises

[D]leavingtheboardintoughtimes

22.WelearnfromParagraph2thatoutsidedirectorsaresupposedtobe        .

[A]generousinvestors

[B]unbiasedexecutives

[C]sharepriceforecasters

[D]independentadvisers

23.AccordingtotheresearchersfromOhioUniversityafteranoutsidedirector’ssurprisedeparture,thefirmislikelyto       .

[A]becomemorestable

[B]reportincreasedearnings

[C]dolesswellinthestockmarket

[D]performworseinlawsuits

24.Itcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatoutsidedirectors        .

[A]maystayfortheattractiveoffersfromthefirm

[B]haveoftenhadrecordsofwrongdoingsinthefirm

[C]areaccustomedtostress-freeworkinthefirm

[D]willdeclineincentivesfromthefirm

25.Theauthor’sattitudetowardtheroleofoutsidedirectorsis       .

[A]permissive

[B]positive

[C]scornful

[D]critical

Text 2

Whateverhappenedtothedeathofnewspaper?Ayearagotheendseemednear.Therecessionthreatenedtoremovetheadvertisingandreadersthathadnotalreadyfledtotheinternet.NewspapersliketheSanFranciscoChroniclewerechroniclingtheirowndoom.America’sFederalTradecommissionlaunchedaroundoftalksabouthowtosavenewspapers.Shouldtheybecomecharitablecorporations?Shouldthestatesubsidizethem?Itwillholdanothermeetingsoon.Butthediscussionsnowseemoutofdate.

Inmuchoftheworldthereisthesignofcrisis.GermanandBrazilianpapershaveshruggedofftherecession.EvenAmericannewspapers,whichinhabitthemosttroubledcomeoftheglobalindustry,havenotonlysurvivedbutoftenreturnedtoprofit.Notthe20%profitmarginsthatwereroutineafewyearsago,butprofitallthesame.

Ithasnotbeenmuchfun.Manypapersstayedafloatbypushingjournalistsoverboard.TheAmericanSocietyofNewsEditorsreckonsthat13,500newsroomjobshavegonesince2007.Readersarepayingmoreforslimmerproducts.Somepapersevenhadthenervetorefusedeliverytodistantsuburbs.Yetthesedesperatemeasureshaveprovedtherightonesand,sadlyformanyjournalists,theycanbepushedfurther.

Newspapersarebecomingmorebalancedbusinesses,withahealthiermixofrevenuesfromreadersandadvertisers.Americanpapershavelongbeenhighlyunusualintheirrelianceonads.Fully87%oftheirrevenuescamefromadvertisingin2008,accordingtotheOrganizationforEconomicCooperation&Development(OECD).InJapantheproportionis35%.Notsurprisingly,Japanesenewspapersaremuchmorestable.

Thewhirlwindthatsweptthroughnewsroomsharmedeverybody,butmuchofthedamagehasbeenconcentratedinareaswherenewspaperareleastdistinctive.Carandfilmreviewershavegone.Sohavescienceandgeneralbusinessreporters.Foreignbureaushavebeensavagelycutoff.Newspapersarelesscompleteasaresult.Butcompletenessisnolongeravirtueinthenewspaperbusiness.

26.Bysaying“Newspaperslike…theirowndoom”(Lines3-4,Para.1),theauthorindicatesthatnewspaper       .

[A]neglectedthesignofcrisis

[B]failedtogetstatesubsidies

[C]werenotcharitablecorporations

[D]wereinadesperatesituation

27.Somenewspapersrefuseddeliverytodistantsuburbsprobablybecause      .

[A]readersthreatenedtopayless

[B]newspaperswantedtoreducecosts

[C]journalistsreportedlittleabouttheseareas

[D]subscriberscomplainedaboutslimmerproducts

28.ComparedwiththeirAmericancounterparts,Japanesenewspapersaremuchmorestablebecausethey      .

[A]havemoresourcesofrevenue

[B]havemorebalancednewsrooms

[C]arelessdependentonadvertising

[D]arelessaffectedbyreadership

29.Whatcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphaboutthecurrentnewspaperbusiness?

[A]Distinctivenessisanessentialfeatureofnewspapers.

[B]Completenessistoblameforthefailureofnewspaper.

[C]Foreignbureausplayacrucialroleinthenewspaperbusiness.

[D]Readershavelosttheirinterestincarandfilmreviews.

30.Themostappropriatetitleforthistextwouldbe        .

[A]AmericanNewspapers:StrugglingforSurvival

[B]AmericanNewspapers:GonewiththeWind

[C]AmericanNewspapers:AThrivingBusiness

[D]AmericanNewspapers:AHopelessStory

Text 3

WetendtothinkofthedecadesimmediatelyfollowingWorldWarIIasatimeofprosperityandgrowth,withsoldiersreturninghomebythemillions,goingofftocollegeontheG.I.Billandliningupatthemarriagebureaus.

Butwhenitcametotheirhouses,itwasatimeofcommonsenseandabeliefthatlesscouldtrulybemore.DuringtheDepressionandthewar,Americanshadlearnedtolivewithless,andthatrestraint,incombinationwiththepostwarconfidenceinthefuture,madesmall,efficienthousingpositivelystylish.

Economicconditionwasonlyastimulusforthetrendtowardefficientliving.Thephrase“lessismore”wasactuallyfirstpopularizedbyaGerman,thearchitectLudwigMiesvanderRohe,wholikeotherpeopleassociatedwiththeBauhaus,aschoolofdesign,emigratedtotheUnitedStatesbeforeWorldWarII

andtookuppostsatAmericanarchitectureschools.ThesedesignerscametoexertenormousinfluenceonthecourseofAmericanarchitecture,butnonemoresothatMies.

Mies’ssignaturephrasemeansthatlessdecoration,properlyorganized,hasmoreimpactthatalot.Elegance,hebelieved,didnotderivefromabundance.Likeothermodernarchitects,heemployedmetal,glassandlaminatedwood-materialsthatwetakeforgrantedtodaybuythatinthe1940ssymbolizedthefuture.Mies’ssophisticatedpresentationmaskedthefactthatthespaceshedesignedweresmallandefficient,ratherthanbigandoftenempty.

TheapartmentsintheeleganttowersMiesbuiltonChicago’sLakeShoreDrive,forexample,weresmaller-two-bedroomunitsunder1,000squarefeet-thanthoseintheirolderneighborsalongthecity’sGoldCoast.Buttheywerepopularbecauseoftheirairyglasswalls,theviewstheyaffordedandtheeleganceofthebuildings’detailsandproportions,thearchitecturalequivalentoftheabstractartsopopularatthetime.

Thetrendtoward“less”wasnotentirelyforeign.Inthe1930sFrankLloydWrightstartedbuildingmoremodestandefficienthouses-usuallyaround1,200squarefeet-thanthespreadingtwo-storyoneshehaddesignedinthe1890sandtheearly20thcentury.

The“CaseStudyHouses”commissionedfromtalentedmodernarchitectsbyCaliforniaArts&Architecturemagazinebetween1945and1962wereyetanotherhomegrowninfluenceonthe“lessismore”trend.Aestheticeffectcamefromthelandscape,newmaterialsandforthrightdetailing.InhisCaseStudyHouse,Ralpheverydaylife-fewAmericanfamiliesacquiredhelicopters,thoughmosteventuallygotclothesdryers-buthisbeliefthatself-sufficiencywasbothdesirableandinevitablewaswidelyshared.

31.ThepostwarAmericanhousingstylelargelyreflectedtheAmericans’        .

[A]prosperityandgrowth

[B]efficiencyandpracticality

[C]restraintandconfidence

[D]prideandfaithfulness

32.WhichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromParagraph3aboutBauhaus?

[A]ItwasfoundedbyLudwigMiesvanderRohe.

[B]ItsdesigningconceptwasaffectedbyWorldWarII.

[C]MostAmericanarchitectsusedtobeassociatedwithit.

[D]IthadagreatinfluenceuponAmericanarchitecture.

33.Miesheldthateleganceofarchitecturaldesign        .

[A]wasrelatedtolargespace

[B]wasidentifiedwithemptiness

[C]wasnotreliantonabundantdecoration

[D]wasnotassociatedwithefficiency

34.WhatistrueabouttheapartmentsMiesbuildingChicago’sLakeShoreDrive?

[A]Theyignoreddetailsandproportions.

[B]Theywerebuiltwithmaterialspopularatthattime.

[C]Theyweremorespaciousthanneighboringbuildings.

[D]Theysharedsomecharacteristicsofabstractart.

35.Whatcanwelearnaboutthedesignofthe“CaseStudyHouse”?

[A]Mechanicaldeviceswerewidelyused.

[B]Naturalscenesweretakenintoconsideration

[C]Detailsweresacrificedfortheoveralleffect.

[D]Eco-friendlymaterialswereemployed.

Text 4

WilltheEuropeanUnionmakeit?Thequestionwouldhavesoundedstrangenotlongago.Noweventheproject’sgreatestcheerleaderstalkofacontinentfacinga“Bermudatriangle”ofdebt,populationdeclineandlowergrowth.

Aswellasthosechronicproblems,theEUfaceanacutecrisisinitseconomiccore,the16countriesthatusethesinglecurrency.Marketshavelostfaiththattheeurozone’seconomies,weakerorstronger,willonedayconvergethankstothedisciplineofsharingasinglecurrency,whichdeniesuncompetitivemembersthequickfixofdevaluation.

YetthedebateabouthowtosaveEurope’ssinglecurrencyfromdisintegrationisstuck.Itisstuckbecausetheeurozone’sdominantpowers,FranceandGermany,agreeontheneedforgreaterharmonizationwithintheeurozone,butdisagreeaboutwhattoharmonies.

Germanythinkstheeuromustbesavedbystricterrulesonborrowspendingandcompetitiveness,barkedbyquasi-automaticsanctionsforgovernmentsthatdonotobey.ThesemightincludethreatstofreezeEUfundsforpoorerregionsandEUmega-projectsandeventhesuspensionofacountry’svotingrightsinEUministerialcouncils.Itinsiststhateconomicco-ordinationshouldinvolveall27membersoftheEUclub,amongwhomthereisasmallmajorityforfree-marketliberalismandeconomicrigour;intheinnercorealone,Germanyfears,asmallmajorityfavourFrenchinterference.

A“southern”campheadedbyFrenchwantssomethingdifferent:”Europeaneconomicgovernment”withinaninnercoreofeuro-zonemembers.Translated,thatmeanspoliticiansinterveninginmonetarypolicyandasystemofredistributionfromrichertopoorermembers,viacheaperborrowingforgovernmentsthroughcommonEurobondsorcompletefiscaltransfers.Finally,figuresclosetotheFrancegovernmenthavemurmured,curo-zonemembersshouldagreetosomefiscalandsocialharmonization:e.g.,curbingcompetitionincorporate-taxratesorlabourcosts.

ItistoosoontowriteofftheEU.Itremainstheworld’slargesttradingblock.Atitsbest,theEuropeanprojectisremarkablyliberal:builtaroundasinglemarketof27richandpoorcountries,itsinternalbordersarefarmoreopentogoods,capitalandlabourthananycomparabletradingarea.Itisanambitiousattempttobluntthesharpestedgesofglobalization,andmakecapitalismbenign.

36.TheEUisfacedwithsomanyproblemsthat          .

[A]ithasmoreorlesslostfaithinmarkets

[B]evenitssupportersbegintofeelconcerned

[C]someofitsmembercountriesplantoabandoneuro

[D]itintendstodenythepossibilityofdevaluation

37.ThedebateovertheEU’ssinglecurrencyisstuckbecausethedominantpowers        .

[A]arecompetingfortheleadingposition

[B]arebusyhandlingtheirowncrises

[C]failtoreachanagreementonharmonization

[D]disagreeonthestepstowardsdisintegration

38.Tosolvetheeuroproblem,Germanyproposedthat      .

[A]EUfundsforpoorregionsbeincreased

[B]stricterregulationsbeimposed

[C]onlycoremembersbeinvolvedineconomicco-ordination

[D]votingrightsoftheEUmembersbeguaranteed

39.TheFrenchproposalofhandlingthecrisisimpliesthat__ __.

[A]poorcountriesaremorelikelytogetfunds

[B]strictmonetarypolicywillbeappliedtopoorcountries

[C]loanswillbereadilyavailabletorichcountries

[D]richcountrieswillbasicallycontrolEurobonds

40.RegardingthefutureoftheEU,theauthorseemstofeel__ __.

[A]pessimistic

[B]desperate

[C]conceited

[D]hopeful

PartB

Directions:

Readthefollowingtextandanswerthequestionsbyfindinginformationfromtherightcolumnthatcorrespondstoeachofthemarkeddetailsgivenintheleftcolumn.Therearetwoextrachoicesintherightcolumn.MarkyouransweronANSWERSHEET1.(10points)

SuchamovecouldaffectfirmssuchasMcDonald’s,whichsponsorstheyouthcoachingschemerunbytheFootballAssociation.Fast-foodchainsshouldalsostopoffering“inducements”suchastoys,cuteanimalsandmobilephonecredittolureyoungcustomers,Stephensonsaid.

ProfessorDineshBhugra,presidentoftheRoyalCollegeofPsychiatrists,said:“Ifchildrenaretaughtabouttheimpactthatfoodhasontheirgrowth,andthatsomethingscanharm,atleastinformationisavailableupfront.”

Healsourgedcouncilstoimpose“fast-food-freezones”aroundschoolandhospitals-areaswithinwhichtakeawayscannotopen.

ADepartmentofHealthspokespersonsaid:“Weneedtocreateanewvisionforpublichealthwhereallofsocietyworkstogethertogethealthyandlivelonger.Thisincludescreatinganew‘responsibilitydeal’withbusiness,builtonsocialresponsibility,notstateregulation.Laterthisyear,wewillpublishawhitepapersettingoutexactlyhowwewillachievethis.”

Thefoodindustrywillbealarmedthatsuchseniordoctorsbacksuchradicalmoves,especiallythecalltousesomeofthetoughtacticsthathavebeendeployedagainstsmokingoverthelastdecade.

[A]“fattaxes”shouldbeimposedonfast-foodproducerssuchasMcDonald’s.

41.AndrewLansleyheldthat

[B]thegovernmentshouldbanfast-foodoutletsintheneighborhoodofschools

42.TerenceStephensonagreedthat

[C]“lecturing”wasaneffectivewaytoimproveschoollunchesinEngland.

43.JamieOliverseemedtobelievethat

[D]cigarette-stylewarningsshouldbeintroducedtochildrenaboutthedangersofapoordiet.

44.DineshBhugrasuggested that

[E]theproducersofcrispsandcandiescouldcontributesignificantlytotheChange4Lifecampaign.

45.ADepartmentofHealthSpokespersonpropsedthat

[F]parentsshouldsetgoodexamplesfortheirchildrenbykeepingahealthydietathome.

[G]thegovernmentshouldstrengthenthesenseofresponsibilityamongbusinesses.

46.Direction:

InthissectionthereisatextinEnglish.TranslateitintoChinese,writeyourtranslationonANSWERSHEET2.(15points)

Whowouldhavethoughtthat,globally,theITindustryproducesaboutthesamevolumesofgreenhousegasesastheworld’sairlinesdo-rough2percentofallCO2emissions?

Manyeverydaytaskstakeasurprisingtollontheenvironment.AGooglesearchcanleakbetween0.2and7.0gramsofCO2dependingonhowmanyattemptsareneededtogetthe“right”answer.Todeliverresultstoitsusersquickly,then,Googlehastomaintainvastdatacentresroundtheworld,packedwithpowerfulcomputers.WhileproducinglargequantitiesofCO2,thesecomputersemitagreatdealofheat,sothecentresneedtobewellair-conditioned,whichusesevenmoreenergy.

However,Googleandotherbigtechprovidersmonitortheirefficiencycloselyandmakeimprovements.Monitoringisthefirststepontheroadtoreduction,butthereismuchtobedone,andnotjustbybigcompanies.

SectionIVWriting

PartA

47Directions:

SupposeyourcousinLiMinghasjustbeenadmittedtoauniversity.Writehim/heraletterto

1)congratulatehim/her,and

2)givehim/hersuggestionsonhowtogetpreparedforuniversitylife.

Youshouldwriteabout100wordsonANSWERSHEET2.

Donotsignyourownnameattheendoftheletter.Use“ZhangWei”instead.

Donotwritetheaddress.(10points)

PartB

48Directions:

Writeashortessaybaesdonthefollowingchart.inyourwriting,youshould:

  1)interpretthechartand

  2)giveyourcomments

  youshouldwriteatleast150wrods

  writeyouressayonanswersheet2(15points)

2012年研究生入学考试真题及解析

Section1 UseofEninglish

Directions:

MillionsofAmericansandforeignersseeGI.Joeasamindlesswartoy,thesymbolofAmericanmilitaryadventurism,butthat’snothowitusedtobe.Tothemenandwomenwho1)inWorldWarIIandthepeopletheyliberated,theGI.wasthe2)mangrownintohero,thepoolfarmkidtornawayfromhishome,theguywho3)alltheburdensofbattle,whosleptincoldfoxholes,whowentwithoutthe4)offoodandshelter,whostuckitoutanddrovebacktheNazireignofmurder.thiswasnotavolunteersoldier,notsomeonewellpaid,5)anaverageguy,up6)thebesttrained,bestequipped,fiercest,mostbrutalenemiesseenincenturies.

Hisnameisnotmuch.GI.isjustamilitaryabbreviation7)GovernmentIssue,anditwason allofthearticle8)tosoldiers.AndJoe?Acommonnameforaguywhonever9)itto thetop.JoeBlow,JoeMagrac…aworkingclassname.The UnitedStateshas10)hadapresidentorvicepresidentorsecretaryofstateJoe.

GI.joe hada(11)careerfightingGerman,Japanese,and Koreantroops.Heappersasacharacter ,ora(12)ofamerican personalities,inthe1945movieTheStoryofGI.Joe,basedonthelastdaysofwarcorrespondentErniePyle.SomeofthesoldiersPyle(13)portraydethemselvesinthefilm.Pylewasfamousforcoveringthe(14)sideofthewarl,writingaboutthedirt-snow–and-mudsoldiers,nothowmanymileswere(15)orwhattownswerecapturedorliberated,Hisreports(16)the“willie”cartoonsoffamedStarsandStripesartistBillMaulden.Bothmen(17)thedirtandexhaustionofwar,the(18)ofcivilizationthatthesoldierssharedwitheachotherandthecivilians:coffee,tobacco,whiskey,shelter,sleep.(19)Egypt,France,andadozenmorecountries,G.I.JoewasanyAmericansoldier,(20)themostimportantpersonintheirlives.

1.[A]performed[B]served[C]rebelled[D]betrayed

2.[A]actual[B]common[C]special[D]normal

3.[A]bore[B]cased[C]removed[D]loaded

4.[A]necessities[B]facilitice [C]commodities[D]propertoes

5.[A]and[B]nor[C]but[D]hence

6.[A]for [B]into[C]form[D]against

7.[A]meaning[B]implying[C]symbolizing[D]claiming

8.[A]handedout[B]turnover[C]broughtback[D]passeddown

9.[A]pushed[B]got[C]made[D]managed

10.[A]ever [B]never [C]either[D]neither

11.[A]disguised[B]disturbed[C]disputed[D]distinguished

12.[A]company[B]collection[C]community[D]colony

13.[A]employed[B]appointed[C]interviewed[D]questioned

14.[A]ethical[B]military[C]political[D]human

15.[A]ruined[B]commuted[C]patrolled[D]gained

16.[A]paralleled[B]counteracted[C]duplicated[D]contradicted

17.[A]neglected[B]avoided[C]emphasized[D]admired

18.[A]stages[B]illusions[C]fragments[D]advancea

19.[A]With[B]To [C]Among[D]Beyond

20.[A]onthecontrary[B]bythismeans[C]fromtheoutset[D]atthatpoint

SectionIIResdiongComprehension

PartA

Directions:

Readthefollowingfourtexts.answerthequestionaftereachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)

Text1

Homeworkhasneverbeenterriblypopularwithstudentsandevenmanyparents,butinrecentyearsithasbeenparticularlyscorned.Schooldistrictsacrossthecountry,mostrecentlyLosAngelesUnified,arerevisingtheirthinkingonhiseducationalritual.Unfortunately,L.A.Unifiedhasproducedaninflexiblepolicywhichmandatesthatwiththeexceptionofsomeadvancedcourses,homeworkmaynolongercountformorethan10%ofastudent’sacademicgrade.

Thisruleismeanttoaddressthedifficultythatstudentsfromimpoverishedorchaotichomesmighthaveincompletingtheirhomework.Butthepolicyisunclearandcontradictory.Certainly,nohomeworkshouldbeassignedthatstudentscannotdowithoutexpensiveequipment.Butifthedistrictisessentiallygivingapasstostudentswhodonotdotheirhomeworkbecauseofcomplicatedfamilylives,itisgoingriskilyclosetotheimplicationthatstandardsneedtobeloweredforpoorchildren.

Districtadministratorssaythathomeworkwillstillbeapatofschooling:teachersareallowedtoassignasmuchofitastheywant.Butwithhomeworkcountingfornomorethan10%oftheirgrades,studentscaneasilyskiphalftheirhomeworkandseeveylittledifferenceontheirreportcards.Somestudentsmightdowellonstatetestswithoutcompletingtheirhomework,butwhataboutthestudentswhoperformedwellonthetestsanddidtheirhomework?Itisquitepossiblethatthehomeworkhelped.Yetratherthanempoweringteacherstofindwhatworksbestfortheirstudents,thepolicyimposesaflat,across-the-boardrule.

Atthesametime,thepolicyaddressesnoneofthetrulythornyquestionsabouthomework.Ifthedistrictfindshomeworktobeunimportanttoitsstudents’academicachievement,itshouldmovetoreduceoreliminatetheassignments,notmakethemcountforalmostnothing.Conversely,ifhomeworkdoesnothingtoensurethatthehomeworkstudentsarenotassigningmorethantheyarewillingtoreviewandcorrect.

Thehomeworkrulesshouldbeputonholdwhiletheschoolboard,whichisresponsibleforsettingeducationalpolicy,looksintothematterandconductspublichearings.ItisnottoolateforL.A.Unifiedtodohomeworkright.

21.Itisimpliedinparagraph1that nowadayshomework_____.

[A]isreceivingmorecriticism

[B]isnolongeraneducationalritual

[C]isnotrequiredforadvancedcourses

[D]isgainingmorepreferences

22.L.A.Unifiedhasmadetheruleabouthomeworkmainlybecausepoorstudents_____.

[A]tendtohavemoderateexpectationsfortheireducation

[B]haveaskedforadifferenteducationalstandard

[C]mayhaveproblemsfinishingtheirhomework

[D]havevoicedtheircomplaintsabouthomework

23.AccordingtoParagraph3,oneproblemwiththepolicyisthatitmay____.

[A]discouragestudentsfromdoinghomework

[B]resultinstudents'indifferencetotheirreportcards

[C]underminetheauthorityofstatetests

[D]restrictteachers'powerineducation

24.AsmentionedinParagraph4,akeyquestionunansweredabouthomeworkiswhether______.[A]itshouldbeeliminated

[B]itcountsmuchinschooling

[C]itplacesextraburdensonteachers

[D]itisimportantforgrades

25.Asuitabletitleforthistextcouldbe______.

[A]WrongInterpretationofanEducationalPolicy

[B]AWelcomedPolicyforPoorStudents

[C]ThornyQuestionsaboutHomework

[D]AFaultyApproachtoHomework

Text2

Prettyinpink:adultwomendonotrememerbeingsoobsessedwiththecolour,yetitispervasiveinouryounggirls’lives.Ttisnotthatpinkisintrinsicallybad,butitissuchatinysliceoftherainbowand,thoughitmaycelebrategirlhoodinoneway,italsorepeatedlyandfirmlyfusesgirls’identitytoappearance.Thenitpresentsthatconnection,evenamongtwo-year-olds,betweengirlsasnotonlyinnocentbutasevidenceofinnocence.Lookingaround,Idespairedatthesingularlackofimaginationaboutgirls’livesandinterests.

Girls’attractiontopinkmayseemunavoidable,somehowencodedintheirDNA,butaccordingtoJoPaoletti,anassociateprofessorofAmericanStudies,itisnot.Childrenwerenotcolour-codedatalluntiltheearly20thcentury:intheerabeforedomesticwashingmachinesallbabiesworewhiteasapracticalmatter,sincetheonlywayofgettingclothescleanwastoboilthem.What’smore,bothboysandgirlsworewhatwerethoughtofasgender-neutraldresses.Whennurserycolourswereintroduced,pinkwasactuallyconsideredthemoremasculinecolour,apastelversionofred,whichwasassociatedwithstrength.Blue,withitsintimationsoftheVirginMary,constancyandfaithfulness,symbolisedfemininity.Itwasnotuntilthemid-1980s,whenamplifyingageandsexdifferencesbecameadominantchildren’smarketingstrategy,thatpinkfullycameintoitsown,whenitbegantoseeminherentlyattractivetogirls,partofwhatdefinedthemasfemale,atleastforthefirstfewcriticalyears.

Ihadnotrealisedhowprofoundlymarketingtrendsdictatedourperceptionofwhatisnaturaltokins,includingourcorebeliefsabouttheirpsychologicaldevelopment.Takethetoddler.Iassumedthatphasewassomethingexpertsdevelopedafteryearsofresearchintochildren’sbehaviour:wrong.Turnsout,acdordingtoDanielCook,ahistorianofchildhoodconsumerism,itwaspopularisedasamarketingtrickbyclothingmanufacrurersinthe1930s.

Tradepublicationscounselleddepartmentstoresthat,inordertoincreasesales,theyshouldcreatea“thirdsteppingstone”betweeninfantwearandolderkids’clothes.Ttwasonlyafter“toddler”becameacommonshoppers’termthatitevolvedintoabroadlyaccepteddevelopmentalstage.Splittingkids,oradults,intoever-tiniercategorieshasprovedasure-firewaytoboostprofits.Andoneoftheeasiestwaystosegmentamarketistomagnifygenderdifferences–orinventthemwheretheydidnotpreviouslyexist.

26.Bysaying"itis...therainbow"(Line3,Para.1),theauthormeanspink______.

[A]shouldnotbethesolerepresentationofgirlhood

[B]shouldnotbeassociatedwithgirls'innocence

[C]cannotexplaingirls'lackofimagination

[D]cannotinfluencegirls'livesandinterests

27.AccordingtoParagraph2,whichofthefollowingistrueofcolours?

[A]Coloursareencodedingirls'DNA.

[B]Blueusedtoberegardedasthecolourforgirls.

[C]Pinkusedtobeaneutralcolourinsymbolisinggenders.

[D]Whiteispreferedbybabies.

28.Theauthorsuggeststhatourperceptionofchildren'spsychologicaldevelopmentwasmuchinfluencedby_____.

[A]themarketingofproductsforchildren

[B]theobservationofchildren'snature

[C]researchesintochildren'sbehavior

[D]studiesofchildhoodconsumption

29.WemaylearnfromParagraph4thatdepartmentstoreswereadvisedto_____.

[A]focusoninfantwearandolderkids'clothes

[B]attachequalimportancetodifferentgenders

[C]classifyconsumersintosmallergroups

[D]createsomecommonshoppers'terms

30.Itcanbeconcludedthatgirls'attractiontopinkseemstobe____.

[A]clearlyexplainedbytheirinborntendency

[B]fullyunderstoodbyclothingmanufacturers

[C]mainlyimposedbyprofit-drivenbusinessmen

[D]wellinterpretedbypsychologicalexperts

Text 3

In2010.afederaljudgeshookAmerica'sbiotechindustrytoitscore.CompanieshadwonpatentsforisolatedDNAfordecades-by2005some20%ofhumangeneswereparented.ButinMarch2010ajudgeruledthatgeneswereunpatentable.Executiveswereviolentlyagitated.TheBiotechnologyIndustryOrganisation(BIO),atradegroup,assuredmembersthatthiswasjusta“preliminarystep”inalongerbattle.

OnJuly29ththeywererelieved,atleasttemporarily.Afederalappealscourtoverturnedthepriordecision,rulingthatMyriadGeneticscouldindeedholbpatentstotwogenssthathelpforecastawoman'sriskofbreastcancer.ThechiefexecutiveofMyriad,acompanyinUtah,saidtherulingwasablessingtofirmsandpatientsalike.

Butascompaniescontinuetheirattemptsatpersonalisedmedicine,thecourtswillremainratherbusy.TheMyriadcaseitselfisprobablynotoverCriticsmakethreemainargumentsagainstgenepatents:ageneisaproductofnature,soitmaynotbepatented;genepatentssuppressinnovationratherthanrewardit;andpatents'monopoliesrestrictaccesstogenetictestssuchasMyriad's.Agrowingnumberseemtoagree.Lastyearafederaltask-forceurgedreformforpatentsrelatedtogenetictests.InOctobertheDepartmentofJusticefiledabriefintheMyriadcase,arguingthatanisolatedDNAmolecule“isnolessaproductofnature...thanarecottonfibresthathavebeenseparatedfromcottonseeds.”

Despitetheappealscourt'sdecision,bigquestionsremainunanswered.Forexample,itisunclearwhetherthesequencingofawholegenomeviolatesthepatentsofindividualgeneswithinit.ThecasemayyetreachtheSupremeCourt.

AStheindustryadvances,however,othersuitsmayhaveanevengreaterimpact.companiesareunlikelytofilemanymorepatentsforhumanDNAmolecules-mostarealreadypatentedorin thepublicdomain.firmsarenowstudyinghowgenesintcract,lookingforcorrelationsthatmightbeusedtodeterminethecausesofdiseaseorpredictadrug’sefficacy,companiesareeagertowinpatentsfor‘connectingthedits’,expaainshanssauer,alawyerfortheBIO.

Theirsuccessmaybedeterminedbyasuitrelatedtothisissue,broughtbytheMayoClinic,whichtheSupremeCourtwillhearinitsnextterm.TheBIOrtcentlyheldaconventionwhichincludedseddionstocoachlawyersontheshiftinglandscapeforpatents.Eachmeetingwaspacked.

31.itcanbelearnedfromparagraphIthatthebiotechcompanieswouldlike-----

A.theirexecutivestobeactive

B.judgestoruleoutgenepatenting

C.genestobepatcntablc

D.theBIOtoissueawarning

32.thosewhoareagainstgenepatentsbelievethat----

A.genetictestsarenotreliable

B.onlyman-madeproductsarepatentable

C.patentson genesdependmuchoninnovatiaon

D.courtsshouldrestrictaccesstogenetictests

33.accordingtohanssauer,companiesareeagertowinpatentsfor----

A.establishingdiseasecomelations

B.discoveringgeneinteractions

C.drawingpicturesofgenes

D.identifyinghumanDNA

34.Bysaying“eachmeetingwaspacked”(line4,para6)theauthormeansthat-----

A.thesupremecourtwasauthoritative

B.theBIOwasapowerfulorganization

C.genepatentingwasagreatconcern

D.lawyerswerekeentoattendconventiongs

35.generallyspeaking,theauthor’sattitudetowardgenepatentingis----

A.critical

B.supportive

C.scornful

D.objective

Text4

Thegreatrecessionmaybeover,butthiseraofhighjoblessnessisprobablybeginning.Beforeitends,

itwilllikelychangethelifecourseandcharacterofagenerationofyoungadults.Andultimately,itislikelytoreshapeourpolitics,ourculture,andthecharacterofoursocietyforyears.

Noonetriesharderthanthejoblesstofindsilverliningsinthisnationaleconomicdisaster.Manysaidthatunemployment,whileextremelypainful,hadimprovedtheminsomeways;theyhadbecomelessmaterialisticandmorefinanciallyprudent;theyweremoreawareofthestrugglesofothers.Inlimitedrespects,perhapstherecessionwillleavesocietybetteroff.Attheveryleast,ithasawokenusfromournationalfeverdreamofeasyrichesandbiggerhouses,andputanecessaryendtoaneraofrecklesspersonalspending.

Butforthemostpart,thesebenefitsseemthin,uncertain,andfaroff.InTheMoralConsequencesofEconomicGrowth,theeconomichistorianBenjaminFriedmanarguesthatbothinsideandoutsidetheU.S.,lengthyperiodsofeconomicstagnationordeclinehavealmostalwaysleftsocietymoremean-spiritedandlessinclusive,andhaveusuallystoppedorreversedtheadvanceofrightsandfreedoms.Anti-immigrantsentimenttypicallyincreases,asdoesconflictbetweenracesandclasses.

Incomeinequalityusuallyfallsduringarecession,butithasnotshrunkinthisone,.Indeed,thisperiodofeconomicweaknessmayreinforceclassdivides,anddecreaseopportunitiestocrossthem---especiallyforyoungpeople.TheresearchofTillVonWachter,theeconomistinColumbiaUniversity,suggeststhatnotallpeoplegraduatingintoarecessionseetheirlifechancesdimmed:thosewithdegreesfromeliteuniversitiescatchupfairlyquicklytowheretheyotherwisewouldhavebeeniftheyhadgraduatedinbettertimes;itisthemassesbeneaththemthatareleftbehind.

Intheinternetage,itisparticularlyeasytoseetheresentmentthathasalwaysbeenhiddenwinthinAmericansociety.Moredifficult,inthemoment,isdiscerningpreciselyhowtheseleantimesareaffectingsociety’scharacter.Inmanyrespects,theU.S.wasmoresociallytolerantenteringthisresessionthanatanytimeinitshistory,andavarietyofnationalpollsonsocialconflictsincethenhaveshownmixedresults.Wewillhavetowaitandseeexactlyhowthesehardtimeswillreshapeoursocialfabric.Buttheycertainlyit,andallthemoresothelongertheyextend.

36.Bysaying“tofindsilverlinings”(Line1,Para.2)theauthorsuggestthatthejoblesstryto___.

[A]seeksubsidiesfromthegovemment

[B]explorereasonsfortheunermployment

[C]makeprofitsfromthetroubledeconomy

[D]lookonthebrightsideoftherecession

37.AccordingtoParagraph2,therecessionhasmadepeople_____.

[A]realizethenationaldream

[B]struggleagainsteachother

[C]challengetheirlifestyle

[D]reconsidertheirlifestyle

38.BenjaminFriedmanbelievethateconomicrecessionsmay_____.

[A]imposeaheavierburdenonimmigrants

[B]bringoutmoreevilsofhumannature

[C]Promotetheadvanceofrightsandfreedoms

[D]easeconflictsbetweenracesandclasses

39.TheresearchofTillVonWachthersuggeststhatinrecessiongraduatesfromeliteuniversitiestendto_____.

[A]lagbehindtheothersduetodecreasedopportunities

[B]catchupquicklywithexperiencedemployees

[C]seetheirlifechancesasdimmedastheothers’

[D]recovermorequicklythantheothers

40.Theauthorthinksthattheinfluenceofhardtimesonsocietyis____.

[A]certain

[B]positive

[C]trivial

[D]destructive

PartB

Directions:

Readthefollowingtextandanswerthequestionsbyfindinginformationfromtheleftcolumnthatcorrespondstoeachofthemarkeddetailsgivenintherightcolumn.Therearetwoextrachoicesintherightcolumn.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEERT1.(10points)

“Universalhistory,thehistoryofwhatmanhasaccomplishedinthisworld,isatbottomtheHistoryoftheGreatMenwhohaveworkedhere,”wrotetheVictoriansageThomasCarlyle.Well,notanymoreitisnot.

Suddenly,Britainlookstohavefallenoutwithitsfavouritehistoricalform.Thiscouldbenomorethanapassingliterarycraze,butitalsopointstoabroadertruthabouthowwenowapproachthepast:lessconcernedwithlearningfromforefathersandmoreinterestedinfeelingtheirpain.Today,wewantempathy,notinspiration.

FromtheearliestdaysoftheRenaissance,thewritingofhistorymeantrecountingtheexemplarylivesofgreatmen.In1337,PetrarchbeganworkonhisramblingwritingDeVirisIllustribus–OnFamousMen,highlightingthevirtus(orvirtue)ofclassicalheroes.Petrarchcelebratedtheirgreatnessinconqueringfortuneandrisingtothetop.ThiswasthebiographicaltraditionwhichNiccoloMachiavelliturnedonitshead.InThePrince,thechampionedcunning,ruthlessness,andboldness,ratherthanvirtue,mercyandjustice,astheskillsofsuccessfulleaders.

Overtime,theattributesofgreatnessshifted.TheRomanticscommemoratedtheleadingpaintersandauthorsoftheirday,stressingtheuniquenessoftheartist'spersonalexperienceratherthanpublicglory.Bycontrast,theVictorianauthorSamualSmileswroteSelf-Helpasacatalogueoftheworthylivesofengineers,industrialistsandexplores."Thevaluableexampleswhichtheyfurnishofthepowerofself-help,ifpatientpurpose,resoluteworkingandsteadfastintegrity,issuingintheformulationoftrulynobleandmanycharacter,exhibit,"wroteSmiles."whatitisinthepowerofeachtoaccomplishforhimself"HisbiographiesofJamesWalt,RichardArkwrightandJosiahWedgwoodwereheldupasbeaconstoguidetheworkingmanthroughhisdifficultlife.

ThiswasallabitbourgeoisforThomasCarlyle,whofocusedhisbiographiesonthetrulyheroiclivesofMartinLuther,OliverCromwellandNapoleonBonaparte.Theseepochalfiguresrepresentedliveshardtoimitate,buttobeacknowledgedaspossessinghigherauthoritythanmeremortals.

CommunistManifesto.Forthem,historydidnothing,itpossessednoimmensewealthnorwagedbattles:“Itisman,real,livingmanwhodoesallthat.”Andhistoryshouldbethestoryofthemassesandtheirrecordofstruggle.Assuch,itneededtoappreciatetheeconomicrealities,thesocialcontextsandpowerrelationsinwhicheachepochstood.For:“Menmaketheirownhistory,buttheydonotmakeitjustastheyplease;theydonotmakeitundercircumstanceschosenbythemselves,butundercircumstancesdirectlyfound,givenandtransmittedfromthepast.”

Thiswasthetraditionwhichrevolutionizedourappreciationofthepast.InplaceofThomasCarlyle,BritainnurturedChristopherHill,EPThompsonandEricHobsbawm.Historyfrombelowstoodalongsidebiographiesofgreatmen.Wholenewrealmsofunderstanding—fromgendertoracetoculturalstudies—wereopenedupasscholarsunpickedthemultiplicityoflostsocieties.Andittransformedpublichistorytoo:downstairsbecamejustasfascinatingasupstairs.

[A]emphasizedthevirtueofclassicalheroes.

41.Petrarch

[B]highlightedthepublicgloryoftheleadingartists.

42.NiccoloMachiavellli

[C]focusedonepochalfigureswhoseliveswerehardtoimitate

43.SamuelSmiles

[D]openedupnewrealmsofunderstandingthegreatmeninhistory.

44.ThomasCarlyle

[E]heldthathistoryshouldbethestoryofthemassesandtheirrecordofstruggle.

45.MarxandEngels

[F]dismissedvirtueasunnecessaryforsuccessfulleaders.

[G]depictedtheworthylivesofengineerindustrialistsandexplorers.

SectionIII  Translation

46.Directions:

TranslatethefollowingtextfromEnglishintoChinese.Writeyour translationon ANSWERSHEET2.(15points)

Whenpeopleindevelopingcountriesworryaboutmigration,theyareusually concernedattheprospectoftherbestandbrightestdeparturetoSiliconValleyor tohospitalsanduniversitiesinthedevelopedworld,Thesearethekind ofworkers thatcountrieslikeBritian,Canada and Australiatrytoattractbyusingimmigration  rulesthatprivilegecollegegraduates.

Lotsofstudieshavefoundthatwell-educatedpeoplefromdevelopingcountries areparticularlylikelytoemigrate.A big surveyofIndianhouseholdsin2004 foundthatnearly40%ofemigrantshadmorethanahigh-school education,comparedwitharound3.3%ofallIndiansovertheageof25.This"brain drain"haslongbotheredpolicymakersinpoorcountries,Theyfearthatithurts theireconomies,deprivingthemofmuch-neededskilledworkerswhocouldhave taughtattheiruniversities,workedintheirhospitalsandcomeupwithclevernew productsfortheirfactoriestomake. 

SectionIV  Writing

PartA

47.Directions

Supposeyouhavefoundsomethingwrongwiththeelectronicdictionarythatyou bought fromanonlinstoretheotherday,Writeanemailtothecustomerservice centerto

1)makeacomplaintand

2)demandaprompt solution

Youshouldwriteabout100wordsonANSERESHEET2

Donotsignyourownnameattheendoftheletter,Use"zhangwei"instead.

PartB

48.Directions

writeanessaybasedonthefollowingtable.Inyourwritingyoushould

1)describethetable,and

2)giveyourcomments

Youshouldwriteatleast150words(15points)

某公司员工工作满意度调查

年龄-------满意度

满意

不清楚

不满意

小于等于40岁

16.7%

50.0%

33.3%

41-50岁

0.0%

36.0%

64.0%

大于50岁

40.0

50.0%

10.0%

2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语二试题

 Directions:Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)  Giventheadvantagesofelectronicmoney,youmightthinkthatwewouldmovequicklytothecashlesssocietyinwhichallpaymentsaremadeelectronically.___1___,atruecashlesssocietyisprobablynotaroundthecorner.Indeed,predictionsofsuchasocietyhavebeen___2___fortwodecadesbuthavenotyetcometofruition.Forexample,BusinessWeekpredictedin1975thatelectronicmeansofpayment“wouldsoonrevolutionizethevery___3___ofmoneyitself,”onlyto___4___itselfseveralyearslater.Whyhasthemovementtoacashlesssocietybeenso___5___incoming?  Althoughe-moneymightbemoreconvenientandmaybemoreefficientthanapaymentssystembasedonpaper,severalfactorswork__6___thedisappearanceofthepapersystem.First,itisvery___7___tosetupthecomputer,cardreader,andtelecommunicationsnetworksnecessarytomakeelectronicmoneythe___8___formofpayment.Second,papercheckshavetheadvantagethatthey___9___receipts,somethingthatmanyconsumersareunwillingto___10___.Third,theuseofpaperchecksgivesconsumersseveraldaysof"float"-ittakesseveraldays___11___acheckiscashedandfundsare___12___fromtheissuer'saccount,whichmeansthatthewriterofthecheckcanearninterestonthefundsinthemeantime.___13___electronicpaymentsareimmediate,theyeliminatethefloatfortheconsumer.Fourth,electronicmeansofpayment___14___securityandprivacyconcerns.Weoftenhearmediareportsthatanunauthorizedhackerhasbeenabletoaccessacomputerdatabaseandtoalterinformation___15___there.  Becausethisisnotan___16___occurrence,unscrupulouspersonsmightbeabletoaccessbankaccountsinelectronicpaymentssystemsand___17___fundsbymovingthemfromsomeoneelse’saccountsintotheirown.The___18___ofthistypeoffraudisnoeasytask,andawholenewfieldofcomputersciencehasdevelopedto___19___securityissues.Afurtherconcernisthattheuseofelectronicmeansofpaymentleavesanelectronic___20___thatcontainsalargeamountofpersonaldataonbuyinghabits.Thereareworriesthatgovernment,employers,andmarketersmightbeabletoaccessthesedata,therebyencroachingonourprivacy.  1.[A]However[B]Moreover[C]Therefore[D]Otherwise  2.[A]off[B]back[C]over[D]around  3.[A]power[B]concept[C]history[D]role  4.[A]reward[B]resist[C]resume[D]reverse  5.[A]silent[B]sudden[C]slow[D]steady  6.[A]for[B]against[C]with[D]on  7.[A]imaginative[B]expensive[C]sensitive[D]productive  8.[A]similar[B]original[C]temporary[D]dominant  9.[A]collect[B]provide[C]copy[D]print  10.[A]giveup[B]takeover[C]bringback[D]passdown  11.[A]before[B]after[C]since[D]when  12.[A]kept[B]borrowed[C]released[D]withdrawn  13.[A]Unless[B]Until[C]Because[D]Though  14.[A]hide[B]express[C]raise[D]ease  15.[A]analyzed[B]shared[C]stored[D]displayed  16.[A]unsafe[B]unnatural[C]uncommon[D]unclear  17.[A]steal[B]choose[C]benefit[D]return  18.[A]consideration[B]prevention[C]manipulation[D]justification  19.[A]copewith[B]fightagainst[C]adaptto[D]callfor  20.[A]chunk[B]chip[C]path[D]trail   SectionIIReadingComprehension  PartA  Directions:Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsaftereachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)  Text1  Inanessayentitled“MakingItinAmerica”,theauthorAdamDavidsonrelatesajokefromcottonaboutjusthowmuchamoderntextilemillhasbeenautomated:Theaveragemillonlytwoemployeestoday,”amanandadog.Themanistheretofeedthedogistheretokeepthemanawayfromthemachines.”  Davidson’sarticleisoneofanumberofpiecesthathaverecentlyappearedmakingthepointthatthereasonwehavesuchstubbornlyhighunemploymentanddecliningmiddle-classincomestodayisalsobecauseoftheadvancesinbothglobalizationandtheinformationtechnologyrevolution,whicharemorerapidlythaneverreplacinglaborwithmachinesorforeignworker.  Inthepast,workerswithaverageskills,doinganaveragejob,couldearnanaveragelifestyle,But,today,averageisofficiallyover.Beingaveragejustwon’tearnyouwhatitusedto.Itcan’twhensomanymoreemployershavesomuchmoreaccesstosomuchmoreaboveaveragecheapforeignlabor,cheaprobotics,cheapsoftware,cheapautomationandcheapgenius.Therefore,everyoneneedstofindtheirextra-theiruniquevaluecontributionthatmakesthemstandoutinwhateveristheirfieldofemployment.  Yes,newtechnologyhasbeeneatingjobsforever,andalwayswill.Butthere’sbeenanacceleration.AsDavidsonnotes,”Inthe10yearsendingin2009,[U.S.]factoriesshedworkerssofastthattheyerasedalmostallthegainsoftheprevious70years;roughlyoneoutofeverythreemanufacturingjobs-about6millionintotal-disappeared.  Therewillalwaysbechanged-newjobs,newproducts,newservices.ButtheonethingweknowforsureisthatwitheachadvanceinglobalizationandtheI.T.revolution,thebestjobswillrequireworkerstohavemoreandbettereducationtomakethemselvesaboveaverage.  Inaworldwhereaverageisofficiallyover,therearemanythingsweneedtodotosupportemployment,butnothingwouldbemoreimportantthanpassingsomekindofG.I.Billforthe21stcenturythatensuresthateveryAmericanhasaccesstopoet-highschooleducation.  21.ThejokeinParagraph1isusedtoillustrate_______  [A]theimpactoftechnologicaladvances  [B]thealleviationofjobpressure  [C]theshrinkageoftextilemills  [D]thedeclineofmiddle-classincomes  22.AccordingtoParagraph3,tobeasuccessfulemployee,onehasto______  [A]workoncheapsoftware  [B]askforamoderatesalary  [C]adoptanaveragelifestyle  [D]contributesomethingunique  23.ThequotationinParagraph4explainsthat______  [A]gainsoftechnologyhavebeenerased  [B]jobopportunitiesaredisappearingatahighspeed  [C]factoriesaremakingmuchlessmoneythanbefore  [D]newjobsandserviceshavebeenoffered  24.Accordingtotheauthor,toreduceunemployment,themostimportantis_____  [A]toacceleratetheI.T.revolution  [B]toensuremoreeducationforpeople  [C]roadvanceeconomicglobalization  [D]topassmorebillsinthe21stcentury  25.Whichofthefollowingwouldbethemostappropriatetitleforthetext?  [A]NewLawTakesEffect  [B]TechnologyGoesCheap  [C]AverageIsOver  [D]RecessionIsBad

 Text2  Acenturyago,theimmigrantsfromacrosstheAtlanticincluedsettlersandsojourners.AlongwiththemanyfolkslookingtomakeapermanenthomeintheUnitedStatescamethosewhohadnointentiontostay,and7millinpeoplearrivedwhileabout2milliondeparted.AboutaquarterofallItalianimmigrants,forexanmle,eventuallyreturnedtoItalyforgood.Theyevenhadanaffectionatenickname,“uccellidipassaggio,”birdsofpassage.  Today,wearemuchmorerigidaboutimmigrants.Wedividenemcomersintotwocategories:legalorillegal,goodorbad.WehailthemasAmericansinthemaking,orourbrokenimmigrantionsystemandthelongpoliticalparalysisoverhowtofixit.Wedon’tneedmorecategories,butweneedtochangethewaywethinkaboutcategories.Weneedtolookbeyondstrickdefinitionsoflegalandillegal.Tostart,wecanrecognizethenewbirdsofpassage,thoselivingandthrivinginthegrayareas.Wemightthenbegintosolveourimmigrationchallenges.  Croppickers,violinists,constructionworkers,entrepreneurs,engineers,homehealth-careaidesandphysicistsareamongtoday’sbirdsofpassage.Theyareenergeticparticipantsinaglobaleconomydrivenbytheflowofwork,moneyandideas.Theyprefertocomeandgoasopportunitycallsthem,Theycanmanagetohaveajobinoneplaceandafamilyinanother.  Withorwithoutpermission,theystraddlelaws,jurisdictionsandidentitieswithease.WeneedthemtoimaginetheUnitedStatesasaplacewheretheycanbeproductiveforawhilewithoutcommittingthemselvestostayingforever.Weneedthemtofeelthathomecanbebothhereandthereandthattheycanbelongtotwonationshonorably.  Accommodatingthisnewworldofpeopleinmotionwillrequirenewattitudesonbothsidesoftheimmigrationbattle.Lookingbeyondtheculturewarlogicofrightorwrongmeansopeningupthemiddlegroundandunderstandingthatmanagingimmigrationtodayrequiresmultiplepathsandmultipleoutcomes.Includingsomethatarenoteasytoaccomplishlegallyintheexistingsystem.  26“Birdsofpassage”referstothosewho____  [A]immigrateacrosstheAtlantic.  [B]leavetheirhomecountriesforgood.  [C]stayinaforegintemporaily.  [D]findpermanentjobsoverseas.  27Itisimpliedinparagraph2thatthecurrentimmigrationstystemintheUS____  [A]needsnewimmigrantcategories.  [B]hasloosenedcontroloverimmigrants.  [C]shouldbeadoptedtomeetchallenges.  [D]hasbeenfixeedviapoliticalmeans.  28Accordingtotheauthor,today’sbirdsofpassagewant___  [A]fiancialincentives.  [B]aglobalrecognition.  [C]opportunitiestogetregularjobs.  [D]thefreedomtostayandleave.  29Theauthorsuggeststhatthebirdsofpassagetodayshouldbetreated__  [A]asfaithfulpartners.  [B]witheconomicfavors.  [C]withlegaltolerance.  [D]asmightyrivals.  30whichofthebesttitleforthepassage?  [A]comeandgo:bigmistake.  [B]livingandthriving:greatrisk.  [C]withorwithout:greatrisk.  [D]legalorillegal:bigmistake.

 Text3  Scientistshavefoundthatalthoughwearepronetosnapoverreactions,ifwetakeamomentandthinkabouthowwearelikelytoreact,wecanreduceoreveneliminatethenegativeeffectsofourquick,hard-wiredresponses.  Snapdecisionscanbeimportantdefensemechanisms;ifwearejudgingwhethersomeoneisdangerous,ourbrainsandbodiesarehard-wiredtoreactveryquickly,withinmilliseconds.Butweneedmoretimetoassessotherfactors.Toaccuratelytellwhethersomeoneissociable,studiesshow,weneedatleastaminute,preferablyfive.Ittakesawhiletojudgecomplexaspectsofpersonality,likeneuroticismoropen-mindedness.  Butsnapdecisionsinreactiontorapidstimuliaren’texclusivetotheinterpersonalrealm.PsychologistsattheUniversityofTorontofoundthatviewingafast-foodlogoforjustafewmillisecondsprimesustoread20percentfaster,eventhoughreadinghaslittletodowitheating.Weunconsciouslyassociatefastfoodwithspeedandimpatienceandcarrythoseimpulsesintowhateverelsewe’redoing,Subjectsexposedtofast-foodflashesalsotendtothinkamusicalpiecelaststoolong.  Yetwecanreversesuchinfluences.Ifweknowwewilloverreacttoconsumerproductsorhousingoptionswhenweseeahappyface(onereasongoodsalesrepresentativesandrealestateagentsarealwayssmiling),wecantakeamomentbeforebuying.Ifweknowfemalejobscreenersaremorelikelytorejectattractivefemaleapplicants,wecanhelpscreenersunderstandtheirbiases-orhireoutsidescreeners.  JohnGottman,themarriageexpert,explainsthatwequickly“thinslice”informationreliablyonlyafterwegroundsuchsnapreactionsin“thicksliced”long-termstudy.WhenDr.Gottmanreallywantstoassesswhetheracouplewillstaytogether,heinvitesthemtohisislandretreatforamucklongerevaluation;twodays,nottwoseconds.  Ourabilitytomuteourhard-wiredreactionsbypausingiswhatdifferentiatesusfromanimals:dogecanthinkaboutthefutureonlyintermittentlyorforafewminutes.Buthistoricallywehavespentabout12percentofourdayscontemplatingthelongerterm.Althoughtechnologymightchangethewaywereact,ithasn’tchangedournature.Westillhavetheimaginativecapacitytoriseabovetemptationandreversethehigh-speedtrend.  31.Thetimeneededinmakingdecisionsmay____.  [A]varyaccordingtotheurgencyofthesituation  [B]provethecomplexityofourbrainreaction  [C]dependontheimportanceoftheassessment  [D]predeterminetheaccuracyofourjudgment  32.Ourreactiontoafast-foodlogoshowsthatsnaodecisions____.  [A]canbeassociative  [B]arenotunconscious  [C]canbedangerous  [D]arenotimpulsive  33.Toreversethenegativeinfluencesofsnapdecisions,weshould____.  [A]trustourfirstimpression  [B]doaspeopleusuallydo  [C]thinkbeforeweact  [D]askforexpertadvice  34.JohnGottmansaysthatreliablesnapreactionarebasedon____.  [A]criticalassessment  [B]‘‘thinsliced’’study  [C]sensibleexplanation  [D]adequateinformation  35.Theauthor’sattitudetowardreversingthehigh-speedtrendis____.  [A]tolerant [B]uncertain[C]optimistic [D]doubtful

Text4  Europeisnotagender-equalityheaven.Inparticular,thecorporateworkplacewillneverbecompletelyfamily—friendlyuntilwomenarepartofseniormanagementdecisions,andEurope,stopcorporate-governancepositionsremainoverwhelminglymale.indeed,womenholdonly14percentofpositionsonEuropecorporateboards.  TheEuropeUnionisnowconsideringlegislationtocompelcorporateboardstomaintainacertainproportionofwomen-upto60percent.Thisproposedmandatewasbornoffrustration.Lastyear,EuropeCommissionVicePresidentVivianeRedingissuedacalltovoluntaryaction.Redinginvitedcorporationstosignupforgenderbalancegoalof40percentfemaleboardmembership.Butherappealwasconsideredafailure:only24companiestookitup.  DoweneedquotastoensurethatwomencancontinuetoclimbthecorporateLadderfairyastheybalanceworkandfamily?  “Personally,Idon’tlikequotas,”Redingsaidrecently.“Butilikewhatthequotasdo.”Quotasgetaction:they“openthewaytoequalityandtheybreakthroughtheglassceiling,”accordingtoReding,aresultseeninFranceandothercountrieswithlegallybindingprovisionsonplacingwomenintopbusinesspositions.  IunderstandReding’sreluctance-andherfrustration.Idon’tlikequotaseither;theyruncountertomybeliefinmeritocracy,governmentbythecapable.But,whenoneconsiderstheobstaclestoachievingthemeritocraticideal,itdoeslookasifafairerworldmustbetemporarilyordered.  Afterall,fourdecadesofevidencehasnowshownthatcorporationsinEuropeastheUSareevadingthemeritocratichiringandpromotionofwomentotopposition—nomatterhowmuch“softpressure”isputuponthem.Whenwomendobreakthroughtothesummitofcorporatepower--as,forexample,SherylSandbergrecentlydidatFacebook—theyattractmassiveattentionpreciselybecausetheyremaintheexceptiontotherule.  Ifappropriatepubicpolicieswereinplacetohelpallwomen---whetherCEOsortheirchildren’scaregivers--andallfamilies,Sandbergwouldbenomorenewsworthythananyotherhighlycapablepersonlivinginamorejustsociety.  36.IntheEuropeancorporateworkplace,generally_____.  [A]womentakethelead  [B]menhavethefinalsay  [C]corporategovernanceisoverwhelmed  [D]seniormanagementisfamily-friendly  37.TheEuropeanUnion’sintendedlegislationis________.  [A]areflectionofgenderbalance  [B]areluctantchoice  [C]aresponsetoReding’scall  [D]avoluntaryaction  38.AccordingtiReding,quotasmayhelpwomen______.  [A]gettopbusinesspositions  [B]seethroughtheglassceiling  [C]balanceworkandfamily  [D]anticipatelegalresults  39.Theauthor’sattitudetowardReding’sappealisoneof_________.  [A]skepticism  [B]objectiveness  [C]indifference  [D]approval  40.Womenenteringtopmanagementbecomeheadlinesduetothelackof______.  [A]moresocialjustice  [B]massivemediaattention  [C]suitablepublicpolicies  [D]greater“softpressure”

  PartB  Directions:  Youaregoingtoreadalistofheadingsandatext.ChoosethemostsuitableheadingfromthelistA-Fforeachnumberedparagraph(41-45).MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)   [A]Livelikeapeasant  [B]Balanceyourdiet  [C]Shopkeepersareyourfriends  [D]Remembertotreatyourself  [E]Sticktowhatyouneed  [F]Planningisevervthing  [G]Wastenot,wantnot  ThehugelypopularblogtheSkintFoodiechronicleshowTonybalanceshisloveofgoodfoodwithlivingonbenefits.Afterbills,Tonyhas£60aweektospend,£40ofwhichgoesonfood,but10yearsagohewasearning£130,000aIyearworkingincorporatecommunicationsandeatingatLondon'sbetftrestaurants'"atleasttwiceaweek.Thenhismarriagefailed,hiscareerburnedoutandhisdrinkingbecameserious."Thecommunitymentalhealthteamsavedmylife.AndIfeltlikethatagain,toacertaindegree,whenpeoplerespondedtotheblogsowell.ItgavemethevalidationandconfidencethatI'dlost.Butit'sstilladay-by-daything."Nowhe'slivinginacouncilflatandfieldingoffersfromliteraryagents.He'sfeelingpositive,buthe'llcarryonblogging-notabouteatingascheaplyasyoucan-"therearesomanypeopleinamuchworsestate,withbarelyanymoneytospendonfood"-buteatingwellonabudget.Here'shisadviceforeconomicalfoodies.  41._____________________  Impulsivespendingisn'tanoption,soplanyourweek'smenuinadvance,makingshoppinglistsforyouringredientsintheirexactquantities.IhaveanExceltemplateforaweekofbreakfast,lunchanddinner.Stoplaughing:it'snotjustcosteffectivebuthelpsyoubalanceyourdiet.It'salsoagoodideatoshopdailyinsteadofweekly,because,being-human,you'llsometimeschangeyourmindaboutwhatyoufancy.  42____________________________________________________________  Thisiswheresupermarketsandthci;anonymitycomeinhandy.Withthem,there'snotthesameembarrassmentaswhenbuyingonecarrotinalittlegreengrocer.Andifyouplanproperly,you'llknowthatyouonlyneed,say,350gofshinofbeefandsixrashersofbacon,notwhateverweightispre-packedinthesupermarketchiller.  43_________  Youmayproudlyclaimtoonlyhavefrozenpeasinthefreezer-that'snotgoodenough.Mineisfilledwithleftovers,bread,stock,meatandfish.Planningaheadshouldeliminatewastage,butifyouhavesurplusvegetablesyou'lldoavegetablesoup,andallfruitsthreateningto"gooff'willbecookedorjuiced.  44___________________________________  Everyonesaysthis,butitreallyisatoptipforfrugaleaters.Shopatbutchers,delisandfish-sellersregularly,evenforsmallthings,andbesuperfriendly.Soonyou'llfeelcomfortableaskingifthey'veanyknucklesofhamforsoupsandstews,orbeefbones,chickencarcassesandfishheadsforstockwhich,moreoftenthannot,Theyilletyouhaveforfree.  45__________________  Youwon'tbeeatingoutalot,butsaveyourpenniesandonceeveryfewmonthstreatyourselftoasetlunchatagoodrestaurant-£1.75aweekforthreemonthsgivesyou£21-morethan"enoughforathree-courselunchat  Michelin-starredArbutus.It's£16.95there-or£12.99foralargepizzafromDomino's:IknowwhichI'drathereat.

 SectionIIITranslation  46.Directions:TranslatethefollowingtextfromEnglishtoChinese.WriteyourtranslationonANSWERSHEET2.(15points)  Icanpickadatefromthepast53yearsandknowinstantlywhereIwas,whathappenedinthenewsandeventhedayoftheweek,I’vebeenabletodothis,sinceIwas4.  Ineverfeeloverwhelmedwiththeamountofinformationmybrainabsorbs.Mymindseemstobeabletocopeandtheinformationisstoredawayneatly.WhenIthinkofasadmemory,Idowhateverybodydoes–trytoputittooneside.Idon'tthinkit'sharderformejustbecausemymemoryisclearer.Powerfulmemorydoesn'tmakemyemotionsanymoreacuteorvivid.IcanrecallthedaymygrandfatherdiedandthesadnessIfeltwhenwewenttothehospitalthedaybefore.IalsorememberthatthemusicalHairopenedonBroadwayonthesameday–theybothjustpopintomymindinthesameway.

 

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