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定语从句

一、定语的概念:定语是用来修饰名词或代词的。比如:

(先试试用横线划出下面短语中的定语,然后在后面的括号里注明是什么在作定语)

a beautiful girl () a shoe factory ()Jim’s father ( )

our teacher ( ) the man in the car ()

the man standing at the door ()the man who is talking with Sam ()

二、定语从句的定义:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。

定语从句是指在一个句子中作定语的句子,定语从句要放在所修饰的词后。

如:1) The man who lives next to us is a policeman.

2) You must do everything that I do.

上面两句中的man和everything是定语从句所修饰的词,叫先行词,定语从句放在先行词的后面。

引导定语从句的词有关系代词that, which, who(宾格who, 所有格whose)和关系副词where, when、why

关系词常有三个作用:1、引导定语从句2、代替先行词3、在定语从句中担当一个成分

三、定语从句的基本用法:

(一)关系代词引导的定语从句

1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语,有时也作宾语。

The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。

分析:先行词the boys 在从句中作主语。

Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.

想去博物馆的人必须在明晨7点到大门口集合。

分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。

That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。

You needn’t talk to the people who you don’t like talking to.

分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。

Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈论的那个人。

Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。

The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。

注意:关系代词whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用who 来代替,也可省略。

The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend.

3. whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。

I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country.

分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 译成汉语:_________________________________ 分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

I lost the book whose cover was blue. 我把那本封面是蓝色的书弄丢了。

We live in a house whose windows face the south. 译成汉语:_________________________注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替:

The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.

=The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.

Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?

=Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow?

自己总结一下:在定语从句中,whose + 名词=___________________________

4.which指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。

Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。

The factory which makes computers is far away from here.

制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。

He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 译成汉语:____________________

分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。

This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 译成汉语:___________________________ 分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意思也没有。

5.that引导定语从句时,既可以指人,也可以指物。指人时,相当于who 或whom;指物时,相当于which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常可省略。

The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million.

每年来参观这座城市的人数达一百万。

Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿?

分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

The person that / / you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。

The season that / comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。Yesterday I received a letter that /_______ came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的信。

(二) 关系副词引导的定语从句

1.when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。常可以用in/on/at +which代替。

I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。

The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。

October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded.

1949年10月1日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。

把这个句子改成两个简单句:___________________________________________

___________________________________________ 分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents.

你还记得在农村和你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗?

把这个句子改成两个简单句:___________________________________________

___________________________________________ 分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

2.where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。常可用in/on/at which代替。

Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。

The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.

我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。

I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛的农场。

Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗?

分析:先行词__________ 引导词在从句中作________。

注意:当先行词是situation, occasion, point时,且又在从句中作状语时,常用where来引导定语从句。

Sometimes you will find yourself in a situation where you felt very embarrassed(尴尬).

He has reached a point where nobody can compare with him.

3.why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。常可用for which来代替。

Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。

The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。

I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today.译成汉语:____________________

注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。如:

From the years when (=______________) he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时,他就已经知道长大后要做什么。

I will never forget the moment when (=______________) the blind students moved us.

Great changes are taking place in the city where (=______________) they live.

他们生活的城市正发生巨大的变化。

The reason why (=______________) he refused the invitation is quite clear.

他为什么拒绝接受邀请的原因是十分明了的。

四、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

注意:在非限制性定语从句中,有时which 所指代的先行词是前面的整个句子。

Xiao Li came to see me off, which was very kind of her.

He didn’t pass the exam, which surprised us.

五.定语从句考查重点:

(一)定语从句在下列情况下只能用that ,而不能用which 指物。(指人时可以用who/whom )

1. 当先行词被形容词最高级或者序数词修饰时。

Tom is the cleverest boy that I have ever know.

This is the first film that I have seen since I came here.

2. 当先行词是不定代词everything, anything, nothing ,something, all, none, few, little,

some,much 等代词时,或当先行词受every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等修饰时。

The man who came here yesterday has

come again.That is Mr. Wang, whose daughter teaches English at a middle school. 注意:引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词不可用that ,指人时用who(主语),whom(宾语),指物时须用which.

I have read all the books that you lend me.

The thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.

3.当先行词被the very, the only, the same, the last修饰时。

It is the last lesson that we will learn.

This is the very book that you borrowed in the library.

4.当先行词是who,或which引导的主句时。

Who that broke the window should be punished.

Which is the machine that we used yesterday.

5.当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。

I have never heard of the people and things that you talked about just now.

(二) 不用that的情况

(1) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。

(错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.

(2) 介词后不能用。

We depend on the land from which we get our food.

(三)关系代词的省略:

The factory we visited yesterday was really old. (请将省略的关系代词补充在正确的位置) The man you just talked to was my English teacher. (请将省略的关系代词补充在正确的位置) 当关系代词在从句中作_________时可以省略。

(四)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。

The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous.

=The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。

This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday.

=This is the boy________________I played tennis yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about.

=We’ll go to hear the famous singer ________________we have often talked.我们将去听那位我们经常谈论的著名歌唱家演唱。

注意:1.含有介词的固定短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。

2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用whom,不可用who, that;关系代词指物时只可用which,不可用that。关系代词是所有格时用whose。

3.“介词+关系代词”前还可有some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few等代词

或者数词。

(四)当先行词被one of修饰时,若one of前有the only,则从句的谓语动词用单数,没有的话则用复数。

He is one of the students who ________ never late.

He is the only one of the students who ________ never late.

(五)先行词是时间却不用when引导,先行词是地点却不用where引导,先行词是原因却不用why引导。

I will never forget the days ________ we climbed the mountain together.

I will never forget the days ________ we spent together.

We visited the house _______ Lu Xun used to live.

We visited the house _______ Lu Xun used to live in.

This is the reason _______ he was unhappy.

This is the reason _______ he explained to me.

(六)当先行词被such, the same 修饰时,关系词常用as。

the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。

I have got into the same trouble as he (has).

(七)以the way为先行词的限制性定语从句通常由in which或that引导,而且通常可以省略。如:

The way ________he answered the questions was surprising.他回答这些问题的方式令人惊奇。

I don’t like the way______________ you laugh at her.我不喜欢你嘲笑她的样子。

练习一

( ) 1. Your teacher of Chinese is a young lady____ comes from Beijing.

A. who

B. which

C. whom

D. whose

( ) 2. What’s the name of the program________.

A. which are listening

B. you are listening to

C. to that you are listening

D. that you are listening

( ) 3. The students were all interested ____ you told them yesterday.

A. in which

B. in that this

C. all that

D. in everything

( ) 4. He was the only person in his office______ was invited.

A. whom

B. whose

C. that

D. which

( ) 5. This is the museum______ we visited last year.

A. where

B. in which

C. which

D. in that

( ) 6. Charlie told his mother all____ had happened.

A. that

B. what

C. which

D. who

( ) 7. Do you know the student_____?

A. whom I often talk

B. with who I often talk

C. I often talk with

D. that I often talk ( ) 8. I like the house_____ windows face south.

A. whose

B. who’s

C. it's

D. its

( ) 9. Would you tell me where to get the dictionary _____?

A. what I need

B.I need

C. which I need it

D. that I need it

( )10. The young woman_____ I spoke just now is a young doctor.

A. who

B. to whom

C. whom

D. that

练习二

1. Don’t talk about such things of _______ you are not sure.

A. which

B. what

C. as

D. those

2. The wolves hid themselves in the places __________ co uldn’t be found.

A. that

B. where

C. in which

D. in that

3. I’ll tell you __________ he told me last week.

A. all which

B. that

C. all that

D. which

4. That tree, __________ branches are almost bare, is very old.

A. whose

B. of which

C. in which

D. on which

5. I have bought the same dress __________ she is wearing.

A. as

B. that

C. which

D. what

6. He failed in the examination, __________ made his father very angry.

A. which

B. it

C. that

D. what

7. We’re talking about the piano and the pianist ____ were in the concert we attended last night.

A. which

B. whom

C. who

D. that

8. The girl ________ an English song in the next room is Tom’s sister.

A. who is singing

B. is singing

C. sang

D. was singing

9. Those _______ not only from books but also through practice will succeed.

A. learn

B. who

C. that learns

D. who learn

10. Didn’t you see the man ________?

A. I nodded just now

B. whom I nodded just now

C. I nodded to him just now

D. I nodded to just now

11. Can you lend me the novel ______ the other day?

A. that you talked

B. you talked about it

C. which you talked with

D. you talked about

12. Is there anything _______ to you?

A. that is belonged

B. that belongs

C. that belong

D. which belongs

13. ---- “How do you like the book?” ---- “It’s quite different from _______ I read last month.”

A. that

B. which

C. the one

D. the one what

14. Mr. Zhang gave the textbook to all the pupils except _______ who had already taken them.

A. the ones

B. ones

C. some

D. the others

15. The train _______ she was travelling was late.

A. which

B. where

C. on which

D. in that

16. He has lost the key to the drawer _______ the papers are kept.

A. where

B. in which

C. under which

D. which

17. Antarctic(南极)_______ we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round.

A. which

B. where

C. that

D. about which

18. May the fourth is the day ______ we Chinese people will never forget.

A. which

B. when

C. on which

D. about which

19. We are going to spend the Spring Festival in Guangzhou, _______ live my grandparents and some relatives.

A. which

B. that

C. who

D. where

20. The hotel _______ during our holidays stands by the seaside.

A. we stayed at

B. where we stayed at

C. we stayed

D. in that we stayed

练习三

1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace.

A. which

B. where

C. what

D. in which

2.Do you know the man _______?

A. whom I spoke

B. to who spoke

C. I spoke to

D. that I spoke

3.This is the hotel _______last month.

A. which they stayed

B. at that they stayed

C. where they stayed at

D. where they stayed

4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

A. which

B. that

C. when

D. on which

5.That is the day ______I'll never forget.

A. which

B. on which

C. in which

D. when

6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here.

A. where

B. to which

C. which

D. in which

7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working.

A. where

B. that

C. which

D. there

8.This is one of the best films _______.

A. that have been shown this year

B. that have shown

C. that has been shown this year

D. that you talked

9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day?

A. about which you talked

B. which you talked

C. about that you talked

D. that you talked

10.The pen ______he is writing is mine.

A. with which

B. in which

C. on which

D. by which

11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy.

A. whom

B. who

C. which

D. that

12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old.

A. to whom

B. on whom

C. with which

D. with whom

13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country?

A. who

B. who's

C. which

D. whose

14.I'm interested in ______you have said.

A. all that

B. all what

C. that

D. which

15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday.

A. which

B. who

C. what

D. as

16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be.

A. who

B. whom

C. that

D. as

18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much.

A. I went with

B. with whom I went

C. with who I went

D.I went with him

19.I don't like ______ as you read.

A. the novels

B. the such novels

C. such novels

D. same novels

20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school.

A. which

B. that

C. whom

D. what

21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing.

A. which

B. that

C. whom

D. who

22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women.

A. them

B. which

C. whom

D. who

23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it.

A. who;/

B./; whom

C. whom;/

D./; who

24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now.

A. whose title

B. its title

C. the title of it

D. the title of that

25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world.

A. for which

B. for that

C. in which

D. what

26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV.

A. that

B. which

C. as

D. it

27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together.

A. when; which

B. which; when

C. what; that

D. on which; when

28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong.

A. which

B. whose

C. what

D./

29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting.

A. in which

B. with which

C. that

D. for which

30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly.

A. after which I have looked

B. which I have looked after

C. that I have looked after

D. I have looked after

31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill.

A. why; that

B.that;why

C. for that;that

D.for which;what

32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam.

A.that

B.which

C.for which

D.who

33.That is not the way ______I do it.

A./

B.which

C.for which

D.with which

34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use.

A. all of which

B. either of which

C. both of that

D. both of which

35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago.

A. as was

B. which was

C. as were

D. which

36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them.

A. who

B. which

C. that

D. it

37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph.

A. that

B. which

C. from that

D. from which

38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done.

A. that

B. which

C. who

D. as

39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes.

A. /

B. why

C. when

D. whose

40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular.

A. that

B. which

C. it

D. though

41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened?

--- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew.

A. what; that

B. what; what

C. which; which

D. that; that

42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life.

A. when; who

B. that; which

C. which; that

D. when; which

43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing.

A. owns; are

B. owns; is

C. own; is

D. own; are

44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns.

A. followed

B. following

C. to follow

D. that followed

45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn?

A. that

B. /

C. which

D. it

46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _____ he could see _____ was going on inside house.

A. which; what

B. through which; what

C. through that; what

D. what; that

47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week?

A. this school

B. this the school

C. this school one

D. this school where

48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected.

A. as

B. that

C. what

D. who

49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well.

A. none of them

B. neither of them

C. neither of which

D. none of which

50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up.

A. are being

B. has been

C. had been

D. have been

课后练习参考答案及解析

1. A. which用作关系代词,在定语从句中作主语。

2.C. "和谁讲话”要说speak to sb. 本题全句应为Do you know the man whom I spoke to.。whom 是关系代词,作介词to的宾语,可以省略。

3. D. where是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

4. C. when是关系副词,表示时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。

5.A. which是关系代词,在从句中作forget的宾语。其他几个答案都不能作宾语。

6.C. 解析同第5题。

7. A. 解析见第3题。

8. A. 本句话的先行词应该是films,因此,关系代词that是负数概念,其谓语动词应用复述的被动语态have been shown。如果句中的one前面使用了定冠词the,则the one应该视为先行词。

9. A. “谈到某事物”应说talk about sth.。about是介词,其后要用which作宾语,不能用that。

10. A. with which是"介词+关系代词"结构,常用来引导定语从句.with有"用"的意思,介词之后只能用which,不能用that. with which在定语从句中作状语,即he is writing with a pen.

11. C. in front of which 即in front of a farmhouse. In front of which在从句中作状语.

12. D. with whom引导定语从句.with whom放在从句中即为:my father works with the engineer.

13. D. whose引导定语从句,在从句中作主语family的定语.

14. A. that引导定语从句,因为先行词是all,所以只能选用that引导.

15. D. the same……..as是固定用法, as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本句话中,as作从句的主语.

16. D. such……… as是固定用法,as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语.在本题中,as作表语.

17. B. as作关系代词可以单独用来引导非限制性定语从句。这时as所指代的不是主句中某个名词,而往往指代整个主句的含义。as在从句中可以作主语、宾语。从句可放在主句后,也可置于主句前。在本句中,as作宾语.

18. B. Li Ming enjoyed it very much是主句,with whom I went to the concert是定语从句.with whom放在从句中为:I went to the concert with Li Ming.

19. C. as引导定语从句时通常构成such…as或the same…as固定搭配,其中such和same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。as在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。Such修饰单数名词时,要用such a……..,本题中such books, such直接修饰复数名词.

20. B. things和persons是先行词.当定语从句要修饰的先行词是既表示人,又表示物的名词时,其关系代词要用that.

21. D. who引导非限制性定语从句,who作从句的主语.

22. C. two thirds of whom 即:two thirds of the 2,000 workers.

23. D. 先行词person后有两个定语从句,第一个从句省略了关系代词whom.因为, whom作从句中met的宾语,可以省略.第二个从句who could do it.who在从句中作主语,不可省略.

24. A. whose title引导非限制性定语从句,whose title也可以说成the title of which

25. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词for,是来自于从句中的固定短语be famous for "以……..而闻名".

26. C. 当先行词被such修饰时,引导定语从句的关系代词要用as. As在本从句中作主语.

27. A. 两个先行词the day都是表示时间的名词,但第一个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作状语,因此要用关系副词when. 第二个空白处要填的关系词在从句中作动词spent的宾语,因此要用关系代词which或that来引导定语从句.

28. D. 在way、distance、direction等词后的定语从句中,常用that来代替“in (或其他介词)+which”、when或where,而that常可省略。

29. D. for which在定语从句中作原因状语,可用why 来替代.

30. B. which I have looked after 构成一个非限制性定语从句.

31. A. The reason why… was that….已成为一种固定句型,这一句中的why和that不能随意换位,也不能将that改成because,尽管that这个词在译文中可能有“因为”的含义。

32. B. 非限制性定语从句常用which引导,which表示前句话的整个含义.

33. A. 解释见28题.

34. D. 主句中的two表明不能选A.从句中的are表明不能选B. both of which用来引导非限制性定语从句.

35. C. as引导定语从句时通常构成such…as或the same…as固定搭配,其中such和same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。本题中as作从句的主语.

36. B. 非限制性定语从句常用which引导,which表示前句话的整个含义.

37. D.

38. D. 解析见35题.

39. A. he makes是定语从句, 从句前省略了关系代词that.

40. B. which is a bad habit 非限制性定语从句.

41. A. what happened是宾语从句. all 之后that he knew是定语从句.先行词是all,所以关系代词只能用that.

42. D. years是表示时间的名词,用when引导定语从句,是因为when在从句中作时间状语.第二个空选用which,引导一个非限制性定语从句.

43. C. 本句话的定语从句是who own cars. 其先行词是people,因此,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数的own。本句话主句的主语是The number of指“…..的数目”,是单数概念。因此,主句的谓语动词要用is。

44. D. that followed是定语从句,关系代词that在从句中作主语。

45. A. 先行词gas被only修饰,关系代词要用that,而不用which。

46. B. through which引导定语从句,through which即through the hole,在定语从句中作状语。What引导的是see的宾语从句,并作从句的主语。

47. B. 为便于理解,改写本句话:This is the school that some Germanfriends visited last week. 不难看出,作表语的the school是先行词。that引导了定语从句,因为that同时又作visited 的宾语,所以被省略了。其它选项结构不对。

48. A. 解释见35题。

49. C. 因为是two ballpens, 并且定语从句的谓语writes是单数概念。因此,C是正确选项。

50. B. 本句话中,主句的主语是all,为抽象概念。因此,其谓语应用单数的has been。关系代词that引导定语从句,并在从句中作主语。

宾语从句

一、宾语从句的种类

宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或

形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。

1. 由that引导的宾语从句。That只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语

和非正式文体中可以省略。例如:

He said (that) he wanted to stay at home.他说他想呆在家里。

I am sure (that) he will succeed.我确信他会成功。

2. 由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。例如:

Do you know who (whom) they are waiting for?你知道他在等谁吗?

He asked whose handwriting was the best.他问谁的书法最好。

Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is?你能告诉我第三公交站台在哪吗?

I don’t know why the train is late.我不知道火车为什么晚点。

3. 由if或whether引导的宾语从句,主要用来引导一般疑问句意思或选择疑问句意思的宾语从句。If和whether在句中的意思是“是否”。Whether, if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。

例如:

I want to know if (whether) he lives there.我想知道他是不是住在那儿。

He asked me whether (if) I could help him.他问我我是否能帮助他。

只能用whether不能用if的情况:

1)在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导

例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。

翻译:

2)宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.

例:I don’t know whether the movie star will come or not.

翻译:

3)和不定式连用作宾语时不用if引导.

例:Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.

翻译:

二、宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如:

I hear (that) physics isn’t easy.

I think (that) you will like this school soon.

Can you tell me how I can get to zoo?

宾语从句的时态受主句的限制,

既:1. 主句是一般现在时态,从句根据实际情况而定。

2. 主句是一般过去时态,从句用相应的过去的时态。如果从句的动作发生在主句之前,则从句要用过去完成时态。

1、一般现在时

She says that she is a student.

2、一般过去时

She says that she has finished her homework already.

3、一般将来时

She says that she will fly to Japan in a week.

4、现在完成时

She says that she has finished her homework already.

5、现在进行时

She says she is reading a book.

6、如果宾语从句说的是客观真理、自然现象或事实时,这时宾语从句要用。

例:老师说地球绕着太阳转。The teacher said

四、宾语从句的否定转移

当主句的谓语动词是think、believe、suppose等时,主句的主语是第一人称且为一般现在时,要将从句的否定转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定形式,而从句用肯定形式。

我认为他不会和你一起来。I don’t think he will come with you.

我相信汤姆没有杀那个人。I don’t believe that Tom killed that man.

五、宾语从句的简化

当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

She has forgotten how she can open the window.

→She has forgotten how to open the window.

注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

Could you tell me how I can get to the station?

→Could you tell me how to get to the station?

宾语从句练习

一.用合适的连接词填空

1. Wang Hai told me _____ he didn't go hiking yesterday afternoon.(how, why)

2. Can you tell me ______ else is going to be on duty today (who, whom)

3. She said _____ it wouldn't matter much.(that, if)

4. He always thinks ______ he can do better.(how, who)

5. I really don't know ________ the bridge will be finished.(how long, how soon)

6. They don't know _______ we are going hiking. (when, what)

7. She wanted to know _______ her coat would be ready the next day. (when, if)

8. I was really surprised at ______ I saw. (what, who)

9. I don't know ______ so many people crowding round him. (how, why)

10. Do you know ______ shirt it is (whose, who's)

二. 选择题

1. I don't know _____ he will be back home.

A. who

B. what

C. when

D. where

2. Could you tell me ___________

A. where do you live

B. who you are waiting for

C. who were you waiting for

D. where you live in

3. Do you still remember _______

A. that he said

B. what he said

C. did he say that

D. what did he say

4. I can't understand ______the boy alone.

A. why she left

B. why did she leave

C. why she had left

D. why had she left

5. She told me the sun ______ in the east.

A. rise

B. rose

C. rises

D. had risen

6. They tried to find out ______ the new train ________.

A. how far/had gone

B. how long/has gone

C. how far/went

D. how far had/run

7. The manager came up to see __________.

A. what was the matter

B. what the matter was

C. what the matter is

D. what's the matter

8. Can you tell me ___________

A. where are you doing

B. where do you study

C. where you were doing

D. where you study

9. It’s up to you to decide _______ you’ll go there, by air or by road.

A. how

B. why

C. that

D. when

10. He asked his father _______.

A. where it happens

B. where did it happen

C. how it happened

D. how did it happen

11. I don’t know when __________.

A. will the train leave

B. the train will leave

C. would the train leave

D. the train leave

12. Could you please teach me _______ the computer.

A. how check

B. to check

C. how to check

D. to how checking

13. ____ he'll come or not isn't important.

A. Why

B. If

C. Whether

D. What

14. Would you like to know _____they will do it or not.

A. if

B. that

C. whether

D. why

15. I want to know_________.

A. what is his name

B. what’s his name

C. that his name is

D. what his name is

16. Our homework has changed a lot. Who can tell ___ it would be like in ____five years.

A. how, another

B. what, more

C. how, other

D. what, another

17. — Could you tell me ______ — Yes. He ____ to the USA.

A. where is he/ has been

B. where he is/ has gone

C. where was he/ has been

D. where he was/ has gone

18. —Mike wants to know if ____ a picnic tomorrow.

—Yes. But if it _______, we'll visit the museum instead.

A. you have/ will rain

B. you will have/ will rain

C. you will have/ rains

D. will you have/ rains

19. I don't know if he ______tomorrow. If he ________tomorrow, I'll meet him.

A. will come/ comes

B. comes/ comes

C. will come/ will come

D. comes/ will come

20. I really don't know if she _______ it when she ________.

A. finds/ arrives

B. finds/ will arrive

C. will find/ will arrive

D. will find/ arrives

21. The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them.

A. took

B. take

C. takes

D. will take

22. ---Could you tell me ______ she is looking for?

。

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