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十日谈意大利电影在线观看

时间:2020-06-02 21:34  编辑:荣昌农村信用社

十日谈意大利电影在线观看

托福长难句详解

句子1

In a countercurrent exchange system, the blood vessels carrying cooled blood fromthe flippers run close enough to the blood vessels carrying warm blood from thebody to pick up some heat from the warmer blood vessels; thus, the heat istransferred from the outgoing to the ingoing vessels before it reaches theflipperitself.

【难点解析】

本句的难点在于复杂的后置定语干扰了阅读,给我们理解句子带来了影响。在这个句子中就是现在分词短语carrying cooled blood…做了后置定语,造成了主语the blood vessels和谓语run 被分割,后面接着出现了另一个the blood vessels carrying warm blood……,进一步加大了理解难度,让我们一时无法理清句子结构。找到这种后置定语,划分句子主干的时候直接忽视这种修饰性成分,句子的主要信息就变得非常清晰:

In a countercurrent exchange system, the blood vessels carrying cooled blood fromthe flippers[定语] run close enough to the blood vessels carrying warm blood fromthe body[定语]to pick up some heat from the warmer blood vessels; thus, the heatis transferred from the outgoing to the ingoing vessels before it reaches the flipperitself.

完成了句子主干划分之后,根据汉语的表述顺序,将后置定语往前放,这样整个句子的意思就出来了。

【参考翻译】

在逆流交换系统中,携带着来自脚蹼冷却血液的血管与携带着来自身体温暖血液的血管足够靠近,这样就可以从更温暖的血管中吸收一些热量;因此,在热量到达脚蹼之前,其从流出身体的血管转移到了流入身体的血管。

【成分划分】

并列句一

In a countercurrent exchange system, [ 状语] the blood vessels [ 主语] carryingcooled blood from the flippers [定语] run [谓语] close enough to the blood vessels[状语] carrying warm blood from the body [定语] to pick up some heat [状语] fromthe warmer blood vessels. [状语]

并列句二

The heat [主语] is transferred [谓语] from the outgoing to the ingoing vessels. [状语]

状语从句

It [主语] reaches [谓语] the flipper[宾语] itself. [状语]

句子2

If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops too heavy for surfacetension to hold, and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, the waterin them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tensionholding them in place; then the water will be firmly held.

【难点解析】

本句的难点是定语(例如too heavy for surface tension to hold)放在了被修饰词(例如drops)的后面,与汉语表述习惯不一致,给我们理解的带来了一定的困

难。另外,后置定语中嵌套了另一个后置定语,更加增加了难度(too light to overcome the force ofsurface tension[定语] holding them in place. [定语])。根据定语的特点(限定或者修饰名词性成分),遇到后置定语,先忽略这些修饰性的定语,找到句子主干,再按照自己的理解,将英语句子切分成一小段一小段来翻译,最后再组合成一句话,这样整句话意思就清晰了。

If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops too heavy for surfacetension to hold[定语], and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, thewater in them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surfacetension[定语] holding them in place[定语]; then the water will be firmly held.

【参考翻译】

如果孔隙很大,其中的水分会以水滴的形态而存在,水滴的重量足以克服表面张力的束缚,随后水分就会渐渐流失;但是,如果孔隙足够小,其中的水会以薄膜形态而存在,薄膜太轻无法克服表面张力的束缚,因此,这种形态的水会稳稳地附着在孔隙表面上。

【成分划分】

状语从句

The pores [主语] are [系动词] large. [表语]

并列句

The water [主语] in them [定语] will exist [谓语] as drops [状语] too heavy for surfacetension to hold. [定语]

并列句

It [主语] will drain away. [谓语]

状语从句

The pores [主语] are [系动词] small enough. [表语]

并列句

The water [主语] in them [定语] will exist [谓语] as thin films[状语] , too light toovercome the force of surface tension[定语] holding them in place. [定语] 并列句

The water [主语] will be firmly held. [谓语]

句子3

The images produced by the camera obscura, a boxlike device that used a pinholeor lens to throw an image onto a ground-glass screen or a piece of white paper,were already familiar —the device had been much employed by topographicalartists like the Italian painter Canaletto in his detailed views of the city of Venice.

【难点解析】

本句的难点是定语(produced by the camera obscura)放在了被修饰词(the images)的后面,与汉语表述习惯不一致,另外,出现同位语(a boxlike device)修饰定语中的名词性部分(the camera obscura),而又有一个定语从句(that used a……)又修饰改同位语(a boxlike device),使得主语和谓语被很多成分隔开,给我们理解的带来了一定的困难。找到那些修饰性成分,先忽略它们,再看句子主干就清楚了。

The images produced by the camera obscura[定语], a boxlike device[同位语]thatused a pinhole or lens to throw an image onto a ground-glass screen or a piece ofwhite paper[定语从句], were already familiar—the device had been much employedby topographical artists like the Italian painter Canaletto in his detailed views of thecity of Venice.

【参考翻译】

针孔照相机(一种盒状的装置)产生的影像已经为大家所熟知,它是一种使用小孔或透镜将影像投射到毛玻璃屏或一张白纸上的盒状装置——这种装置已经为很多地貌风景画家所用,例如意大利画家Canaletto 在他所创作的威尼斯精致风景画中(使用了这种装置)。

【成分划分】

并列句

The images [主语] produced by the camera obscura, [定语] a boxlike device, [同位语]were [系动词] already familiar. [表语]

并列句

The device [主语] had been much employed [谓语] by topographical artists [状语]like the Italian painter Canaletto in his detailed views of the city of Venice. [同位语]

定语从句

A boxlike device [主语] used [谓语] a pinhole or lens [宾语] to throw an image onto aground-glass screen or a piece of white paper. [宾语补足语]

句子4

A maritime code known as the Consulate of the Sea which originated in the westernMediterranean region in the fourteenth century, won acceptance by a majority ofsea goers as the normative code for maritime conduct; it defined such matters asthe authority of a ship's officers, protocols of command, pay structures, the rights ofsailors, and the rules of engaging when ships met one another on the sea-lanes.

【难点解析】

本句的难点一是后置定语和定语从句分割了句子主干,造成了理解问题。主语A maritimecode 先是被过去分词短语known as the Consulate of the Sea 修饰,而这个短语后面紧接着又出现了一个定语从句来进一步修饰A maritime code,当我们再看到won 时,就得费心思寻找won 这个动词的发出者。

难点二是对when 引导的从句的理解。我们在阅读的时候还需要根据语义逻辑来理解句子,这里when ships met one another on the sea-lanes 显然不能作为时间状语从句来修饰defined……as……,意思理解不通,这时我们就要考虑其他可能被修饰的成分。the rules ofengaging 中的动名词engaging 既有名词的属性,又用动词的属性。这里它的动词属性正好可以作为when 从句的修饰对象,所以when 从句应该是修饰engaging 的状语从句。

另外需要注意的是,by 短语虽然经常引导方式状语,但是这里by a majority of sea goers修饰的是acceptance 这一名词,所以它实际上做了acceptance 的后置定语。

【参考翻译】

一部在14 世纪起源于西地中海地区的海洋法典(被称为《康索拉度海法》)赢得了大多数航海员的认可,成为了海上管理的规范法典;它对一些事物做了界定,比如,高级船员的权利、命令的发布规范、薪资结构、海员的权利,以及当船只在航路上遇到别的船时的交战准则。

【成分划分】

并列句一

A maritime code [ 主语] known as the Consulate of the Sea [ 定语] won [ 谓语]acceptance [ 宾语] by a majority of sea goers [ 定语] as the normative code formaritime conduct. [状语]

定语从句

A maritime code [主语] originated [谓语] in the western Mediterranean region [状语]in the fourteenth century. [状语]

并列句二

It [ 主语] defined [ 谓语] such matters [ 宾语] as the authority of a ship's officers,protocols of command, pay structures, the rights of sailors, and the rules ofengaging. [同位语]

状语从句

Ships [主语] met [谓语] one another [宾语] on the sea-lanes. [状语]

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